Nexus between Female Empowerment and Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Analysis for Pakistan

Authors

  • Dr. Humera Sultana Assistant Professor / Research Economist Applied Economics Research Centre University of Karachi

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between Female Empowerment and Entrepreneurship in a society where women face strict societal norms. Female Empowerment raises resources/income, and confidence which is an important element for entrepreneurship. The earlier studies explored the links between empowerment and labor-force participation, but not find the linkages between empowerment and entrepreneurship. Further, the relationship between female empowerment and female entrepreneurship has not been explored after taking into account the bidirectional causality present between the two. The issue of endogeneity and censoring are comprehensively addressed here which were not addressed in earlier research. The study has employed cross-sectional data of PSLM/HIES for the period (2018-2019) and developed an Index through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) while for the assessment of the association between Female Empowerment and Entrepreneurship study has estimated two-steps IV-Tobit Model. Findings show, by developing an empowerment index, females have the decision-making power in household decisions related to purchasing of food, cloth, health-related issues, and child education. Results further conclude that female entrepreneurship enhances empowerment by giving financial security to females.

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Published

2024-03-08

How to Cite

Sultana, H. (2024). Nexus between Female Empowerment and Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Analysis for Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 15(1), 64–79. Retrieved from https://socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJASS/article/view/771

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Articles