Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/administrator/PJASS4.PNG"></a></p> Launched under the patronage of Prof. Dr. Mohammad Qaiser, Vice Chancellor University of Karachi by the Department of Social Work University of Karachi on 8th March 2014. Special Issue was published on 55th Anniversary of the Department on 8th Sep 2016. en-US Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences 2409-0077 Directory of Self-Employed Women of Karachi Shagufta Nasreen Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Shagufta Nasreen 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.528 Institutionalized Care and Child Wellbeing: A Study of Residents of Child Welfare Institutions of District Sargodha <p>This research has focussed on child welfare services and wellbeing among residents of residential child care centers. A well designed interview schedule and a wellbeing scale were used as instruments. The purposive sampling technique was used from the target population and 115 respondents were taken as sample size. Analysis of the data was made on the basis of descriptive analysis and Cross- tabulation. Results reveal that two third of respondents were male. It has also found that majority of respondents reported positively regarding staff behavior, living arrangements, nutrition status, arrangements of education and health condition. Moreover, almost half of the children have moderate and one forth estimated high level of wellbeing. A plethora of children desired to live in these institutions because they fulfil their basic needs. Majority of residents of Kashana, Anjumane-e-Khaliqia were belonged to rural areas and SOS Village residents were residents of urban community. Most of Kashana residents had both parents alive whereas in other child care centers majority were orphans. No significant variation was observed regarding levels of satisfaction in these three institutions. Hence, these institutions play a vital role in upbringing, child welfare services and wellbeing of orphans and vulnerable.</p> Aaqib Shahzad Alvi Asif Naveed Ranjha Ibad Ullah Sajid Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Aaqib Shahzad Alvi , Dr. Asif Naveed Ranjha , Dr. Ibad Ullah Sajid 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 1 20 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.504 Effect of Succession Planning on Leadership Elevation <p>Performance of any organization depends on productivity of leadership. the leaders are responsible for effective utilization of organization’s resources. The leader gives the directions to subordinate for accomplishment of task as per need. Study reveals, many organizations are lacking availability of leadership. Management people are not ready to perform future assignment. However, succession planning can be an effective tool for development of future leadership. Succession planning is the process of identifying key area and position of organization. it helps organization in identification of potential leader and competencies required to complete assignment. Succession planning improve the ability of employee and evaluate its performance. The study aims to analyze relationship between succession planning and leadership elevation. A survey of 300 personnel was conducted through closed ended questionnaire. 50% respondent belong to male and 50% to female. Convenience sampling is used to draw sample in the study. The study reveals succession planning has significant positive impact on leadership elevation.</p> Ammad Zafar Ghazal Khawaja Hummayun Akhtar Copyright (c) 2020 Ammad Zafar, Dr Ghazal Khawaja Hummayun Akhtar 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 21 36 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.469 Disparaging Wives through Humor: A Linguistic Analysis of Jokes on Pakistani Social Media <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Humor is a tool to develop and to strengthen mutual &nbsp;relationships among people. Humor sometimes is used to show superiority of a person, sect, caste or gender to other. This particular study about the linguistic structure of randomly selected jokes is made in order to highlight different stereotypes that are associated with the Pakistani wives. For this purpose a corpus of 60 jokes is developed by collecting jokes randomly in Urdu languge related to wives, using facebook pages,“Husband &amp; Wife jokes” and “Laughing colours” and then twenty jokes are further selected under specific themes for analysis. These jokes are translated into English language and then analyzed using the Atordo’s and Raskin’s model of (GTVH) general theory of verbal humour (1991). This study also throws light on the fact that the stigmas attached with pakistani wives in the form of jokes are widely accepted and enjoyed even by &nbsp;wives themselves that is giving way to their disparaged identity in our society. Hence, the aim of this study is to make the Pakistani women and the wives aware of the intensity of this situation and to provoke them to reject this practice of their disrespect and exploitation through verbal humour. This study will also prove helpful for the future reserch in order to check and make variations in the attitude of the participants and the receivers of the jokes to discourage jokes which are the source of disresopect for any other sect or gender.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Verbal humor, GTVH, wives in jokes,&nbsp;</p> Ammara Iqbal Muhammad Asim Mahmood Musarrat Azher Copyright (c) 2020 Ammara Iqbal, Muhammad Asim Mahmood, Musarrat Azher 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 37 58 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.470 Absence of Witness Protection is a Threat to Fair Trial as Envisaged Under the Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this research is to analyze the causes of non-implementation of witness protection laws in Pakistan and their effects on the right of a fair trial. The key elements in a criminal trial are witnesses and their testimonies, which establish the guilt of the accused. Pakistan follows the adversarial system of trial, which is based on two basic principles; firstly that the burden of proof lies on the prosecution and secondly, that the accused is presumed to be innocent until proven guilty. Witness protection is essential for a fair trial. In terms of Article 10A of the Constitution, 1973, the<em> right of a fair trial </em>is a indisputable and &nbsp;inalienable right of every inhabitant of Pakistan including the victims and witnesses. Protecting witnesses and victims is an obligation of the State. The process of investigation and prosecution of crimes, serious or not, be subject to mainly on the evidence and authentication of witnesses. Hence, witnesses are the chief ingredient</p> <p>&nbsp;of the fruitful Administration of the criminal justice system <strong>(CJS) </strong>in Pakistan. General principles of evidence are contained in the Qanoon-e-Shahdat Order, 1984 (‘QSO-1984’) however, on the matter of witness protection in Pakistan, for the first time complete legislation was introduced at the federal and provincial levels (except Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). The&nbsp; outcome of the reluctant approach of the public at large is that the suspect , every time able to free from a criminal charge &nbsp;and the criminal administration of justice fails.&nbsp; Hence, it is a denial of due process and violation of the essential entitlement to a fair trial of the victim.</p> <table width="595"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="595"> <p><strong>خلاصہ</strong></p> <p>اس تحقیق کا مقصد پاکستان میں گواہوں کے تحفظ کے قوانین کے نفاذ کی وجوہات اور منصفانہ مقدمے کی سماعت کے حق پر ان کے اثرات کا تجزیہ کرنا ہے۔ مجرمانہ مقدمے کی سماعت کے اہم عنصر گواہ اور ان کی شہادتیں ہیں ، جو ملزم کا جرم ثابت کرتے ہیں۔ پاکستان آزمائشی نظام کی پیروی کرتا ہے ، جو دو بنیادی اصولوں پر مبنی ہے۔ پہلا یہ کہ ثبوت کا بوجھ استغاثہ پر پڑتا ہے اور دوسرا یہ کہ قصوروار ثابت ہونے تک ملزم کو بے قصور سمجھا جاتا ہے۔ منصفانہ آزمائش کے لئے گواہوں کا تحفظ ضروری ہے۔ آئین کے آرٹیکل 10 اے کے تحت 1973 میں ، منصفانہ آزمائش کا حق متاثرین اور گواہوں سمیت پاکستان کے ہر شہری کا ایک بنیادی ، ناگزیر حق ہے۔ گواہوں اور متاثرین کی حفاظت کرنا ریاست کی ذمہ داری ہے۔ سنگین ہے یا نہیں ، جرائم کی تحقیقات اور ان کے خلاف قانونی کارروائی کا عمل بنیادی طور پر گواہوں کے ثبوت اور توثیق پر منحصر ہے۔ لہذا ، گواہ پاکستان میں فوجداری نظام کے ثمر آور انتظامیہ کا سنگ بنیاد ہیں۔ ثبوت کے عمومی اصول قونونِ شہادت آرڈر ، 1984 میں موجود ہیں ، تاہم ، پاکستان میں گواہوں کے تحفظ کے معاملے پر ، پہلی بار وفاقی اور صوبائی سطح پر (خیبر پختونخوا کے علاوہ) مکمل قانون سازی کی گئی۔ بڑے پیمانے پر عوام سے ہچکچاتے ہوئے اندازہ لگانے کا نتیجہ یہ ہے کہ ہر بار مجرم ، مجرمانہ الزامات سے آزاد ہونے اور انصاف کی مجرمانہ انتظامیہ ناکام ہوجاتا ہے۔ لہذا ، یہ انصاف کی تردید اور مقتول کے منصفانہ مقدمے کے لازمی حق کی خلاف ورزی ہے۔</p> <p><strong>کلیدی الفاظ</strong></p> <p>منصفانہ ٹرائل ، گواہوں سے تحفظ ، گواہوں کے تحفظ کا قانون ، فوجداری انصاف کا نظام ، گواہ گمنامی کا حکم ، آئین۔</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Atif Uddin Liaquat Ali Copyright (c) 2020 Atif Uddin, Dr.Liaquat Ali 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 59 78 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.453 Community Development And Awareness Raising In Selected Slum Areas Of Karachi Regarding Education, Health And Nutrition <p>This research paper aimed to gain further knowledge regarding the relationship between community development, education, health and nutrition. The main objective of this research is to help the slum community to explore the processes involved in tackling social issues within the community. Globally the scenario is changing as developing nations are focusing more on poverty reduction and community development, because it is now considered as the root cause of all social issues. Therefore, it is needed to evaluate the intensity of issues in order to develop effective policies and development programs to reach the SDG goals. Unstructured face-to-face interviews were conducted in selected slum areas to educate people by using educational action research for maintaining their standard of living in regard to education, health and nutrition. The main purpose of this paper was to involve respondents as research participants in order to mobilize them for future development processes within the community. Two slum areas (Ghazi Goth and Bilawal Jokhio Goth) of diverse cultures and infrastructure were selected as the population of the study. Qualitative research method was chosen to conduct in-depth study through observation and case study method. The research findings indicate that poverty is the basic issue, which needs to be addressed on priority basis, for this purpose encouraging, supporting and enabling individuals within the community can raise the awareness level by involving them through easy access to opportunities. Participants from local community can empower their own community people, because they are well aware of their culture and community issues.</p> Dua-e- Rehma Seema Manzoor Sadia Barrech Copyright (c) 2020 Dua-e-Rehma, Dr. Seema Manzoor , Dr. Sadia Barrech 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 79 100 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.525 Infrastructure Is A Key Factor For The Success Of An Entrepreneurial Business: A Case Study Of General Store Business In Gulistan-E-Jauhar, Karachi <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The part which entrepreneurs play in the economic growth of any country needs no elucidation. Having started new businesses- by utilizing their skills and knowledge- they give proliferation to new ideas in the market and reach the right decisions that serve as vehicles of prosperity and enhancement of the business. The global quest for achieving permanence in economic development and acceleration of social progress has found a new light in entrepreneurial activities. A lot of proponents such as burgeoning urbanization and industrialization, coupled with the prevalence of social legislation as well as general awareness and entrepreneurial education on formal grounds have set the stage for the ever-increasing omnipresence of novel entrepreneurial ventures in various economies across the globe. This study emphasizes the need for adequate infrastructure for an entrepreneurial business, which is a key factor for the success of an entrepreneurial business. Employing a well-developed and verified scale, data collection from 100 respondents was done on a convenience basis. All of the respondents amongst whom the questionnaires were distributed to different Kariyana and general stores located in Gulistan-e-Jauhar, Karachi and descriptive statistics were applied on the relevant variables such as the importance of infrastructure, location of a business, positioning of products in a general store, similarly, use of other business techniques such as educated and trained salespersons, following to proper timing for the business, nice dealing with customers, etc. This research article aims at contributing to the existing academic literature present on the importance of infrastructure required for the better results of an entrepreneurial business. This study shall assist government regulators in making informed decisions while addressing the need and importance of adequate infrastructure for Pakistani entrepreneurs, which shall lead to more effective and well-planned initiatives, which can help not only to improve the performance of entrepreneurial ventures but also to curb and eventually eradicate poverty from Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Muhammad Siddique Faraz Ahmed Wajidi Eruj Wajidi Rehan Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Siddique , Dr. Faraz Ahmed Wajidi , Ms. Eruj Wajidi Rehan 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 101 124 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.512 Impact Of Organizational Justice On Employee Dissent In Higher Education Sector Of Pakistan: A Women’s Perspective <p>This study examined the impact of organizational justice on employee dissent from the perspective of female employees. Participants were 210 full time female teachers working in several<br />Pakistan. Scope of this research shall encompass the justice and dissent perceptions of female teachers in these universities. This research uses a quantitative method by using survey, and proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to collect data. Multiple regression analysis was used in order to explore the relationship between variables. Results indicated that perceptions of interactional and distributive justice are negatively associated with displaced dissen not related with displaced dissent. Interactional justice proved to be thestrongest predictor of displaced dissent followed by distributive justice.Perceptions of organizational justice were not related to latent or articulated dissent. Future research should also focus on explaining occurrence of dissent in various organizational settings such as service or production based organizations</p> Omar Ahmed Shaikh Syed Shabib-ul- Hasan Copyright (c) 2020 Omar Ahmed Shaikh, Prof.Dr. Syed Shabib-ul-Hasan 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 125 138 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.527 Impact of Work Stress, Ego Depletion and Work Absorption on Leader’s Humbleness <p>Leaders humbleness plays an indispensable role in influencing and motivating the followers. It is also significant to study the precursors which augment or mitigate that humility. This study was conducted to empirically test the impact of work stress, ego depletion, and work absorption on the leader’s humility. With the quantitative approach, numeric data was collected from 327 employees of private companies who are at leading positions. Instruments were adopted from previous studies. The result revealed that if leaders face work stress and ego depletion, their humbleness starts vanishing, whereas when they are more absorbed in their work, they become humbler. This study is Beneficial for companies who want their leaders to become humble with their followers and peers.</p> Saima Siddiqui Asif Hussain Samo Saima Wakeel Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Saima Tabassum , Asif Hussain Samo, Saima Wakeel 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 139 156 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.479 Social Work Practice with Local Communities in Balochistan: Essential for Political Engagement <p>The article argues a variety of characteristics of social work, wide community practice movements, and necessities for political engagement in local communities in Balochistan. Drawing on secondary knowledge and also the author's observations and analysis on community development in Balochistan, it highlights a question: do social work practice in local communities typically, and notably through political engagement? The analysis shows wide community practice movements in Balochistan and argues that social work and their profession are practically absent in local communities, and after they are thus engaged, most of them don't interact politically. Insight of local communities’ backgrounds and people’s depressing circumstances, the very important for social work to interact politically in community practice are mentioned. These are as follows: holding to values social work practice with communities, creating access and gaining acceptance, awareness-raising and capability building, difficult artful and oppressive community power structures, and make certain property community development. Finally, it's argued that too with success address these necessities, social work might have to alter its non-political and non-religious unbiased stand, wherever appropriate. In several conditions, social workers have to be compelled to specialize in the profession’s basic values and principles and keenly interact with local politics and power structures so on improving the living conditions of individuals and local communities in Balochistan.</p> Siraj Bashir Muhammad Faisal Zia Naheed Abrar Copyright (c) 2020 Dr. Siraj Bashir , Dr. Muhammad Faisal Zia , Prof. Dr. Naheed Abrar 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 157 172 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.454 Media exposure among the children of working and non-working mothers in Pakistani urban society <p>In this study (n=250) working and non- working mothers were surveyed about the amount of time their kids watch television. These mothers were randomly selected from different schools of Karachi Gulshan-e-Iqbal town. It was investigated that whether working and non-working mother spent quality time with their children and what are their preferences once they get back from their work place. It is observed that technology have made easier for any child to get engaged and stuck for hours in front of TV screen. These audiences vary from all ages but children are more exposed to it due to eye catching sharp images of screen. This study will determine the role of working and stay at home mothers about their control over their kids watching television and their preferable modes of controlling screen time. This study examines maternal control over television viewing and preferable channels watched by child. The strict maternal behavior is associated with fewer amounts of television viewing and preferring co-viewing. Those mother who have strict control over televiewing timings have less psychological problems in their kids and have fewer social issues. Therefore, every mother is quiet concerned about her child but her nature of work and job changes her pattern of controlling her kids.</p> Wajiha Raheeq Muhammad Arshad Copyright (c) 2020 Wajiha Raheeq , Dr. Muhammad Arshad 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 11 2 173 190 10.46568/pjass.v11i2.497