Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/administrator/PJASS4.PNG"></a></p> en-US (Editor) (Dr. Syeda Farhana Sarfaraz) Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Usool-e-Tehqeeq Aliyah Ali Bilgrami Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Nasreen Aslam Shah Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Export Of Legal Education: Its Promise And Impact In Transition Countries Tehreem Farrukh Copyright (c) 2021 Tehreem Farrukh Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Women Empowerment Through Financial Independence (A Case Study Of Rural Areas Of Sindh) <p>Pakistan is second lowest in the world and ranks 148 of 149 nations for gender equality. It is ranked 146th among economic involvement and opportunity and 97th among legislators. Furthermore, the possible effect on financial literacy of gender disparities in rural Pakistan is widespread. The women living in the rural areas of Sindh have low financial literacy, lack of access to formal financial institution, socio-cultural barrier, lack of funds &amp; awareness, and inadequate access to loans. The study focuses on the demonstration of concept of empowerment of women in rural Sindh through financial independence and the positive impact of microfinance on women's empowerment. Primarily the study illustrated the statement of issues, the research goals and the research questions. In this study, researchers focus on women's empowerment, the current financial independence and the impact of microfinance on empowerment of women. The study explains results on the empowerment of women through financial independence in rural areas, with the objective of optimizing their consequences and causes as well as political responses. This will provide a point of departure to gather additional information and to identify areas for further study and thereby pave the way for future research. A wide range of empirical literature illustrates the discrimination of gender in rural Pakistan and the disadvantages of women to financial freedom. With this in mind, it is promising and worth exploring further the ways women can be motivated by financial independence. The study is qualitative and based on data collected from secondary source.</p> Mr Aqil Shakoor, Muhammad Asad, Dr Shabib ul Hassan Copyright (c) 2021 Mr Aqil Shakoor, Muhammad Asad, Dr Shabib ul Hassan Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Employees’ Performance Against Expectations: Case Of Banking Sector Of Karachi <p>Employees are an essential part and play a vital role in the organization. The main purpose of conducting this research paper is to check the impact of organization’s culture on employee performance and employee motivation in different banking sector of Karachi, Pakistan. The research design which is used to conduct this study is Quantitative research. In this study this approach is used to have real life reference and standpoint in relation to the impact of employee performance and employee motivation on organizational culture. The research is descriptive in nature and it is a cross sectional study where data was collected once across population via random sampling technique. The test showed a Pearson correlation value of employee performance is correlated with the value of organization’s culture in 0.441 and the probability value of .000 (approximately 0.01) between both variables. The test further shows a positive strong correlation value of employee motivation is correlated with the value of organization’s culture in 0.364 and the probability value of .000 (approximately 0.01) between both variables. This shows that there is a strong relationship between both the variables. According to employees due to increase in the motivational level of employees the efficiency of the organization also increases, and high motivational level means decrease in the turnover. It can be concluded that organizational culture has a direct and positive impact employee motivation and employee performance.</p> Faheem Akhter, Fatima Kiran, Saaida Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Faheem Akhter, Fatima Kiran, Saaida Khan Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Inequality In Mianwali: Punjab <p>This research paper provides a widespread appraisal of the gender inequality and how did gender inequality symbolizes in Minawali, Punjab? Gender refers to socially constructed roles of men and women. The difference between both the gender stem from assignment of different societal roles and culture. Sadly, Pakistan is such example in which women are treated as second class citizens. Women in Pakistan are butchered in the name of honour and are victimized. Their participation in outdoor activities is restricted. This research paper aims at insight into factors affecting woman’s life in Punjab in general and in Mianwali specifically and find out causes, factors and reasons behind gender inequality in Mianwali. Further, this research paper will make an effort to unmask old dated rituals and traditions in Mianwali. The main question of the paper is how did education play role in the issue of gender inequality in Mianwali? The survey was carried out with the intent to obtain thorough going information; therefore, a well-knit methodology was applied. The questionnaires were taken along with interviews. Also, through qualitative and descriptive analysis, it has been inferred that the most striking component which was found hovering over all the pragmatic issues was infinite male dominance and Mianwali is an underdeveloped district that comes at 10 out of 36 districts in Punjab in terms of literacy.</p> Dr Fauzia Ghani , Salahud Din Khan Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Fauzia Ghani , Salahud Din Khan Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Beneficiaries’ Knowledge and Perspectives Regarding Services of Lady Health Workers <p>Globally, Health care and welfare services are provided by Community Health Workers to the people of underserved communities. In Pakistan, they are known as Lady Health Workers (LHWs). The goal of this research was to look at the current state of knowledge and perspectives of beneficiaries regarding the services of LHWs. To achieve the objective quantitative research methodology was used and the social-ecological model served as the theoretical framework to explain the data obtained. The study was conducted with 15-49 years old beneficiaries from 398 households in the Lahore district, drawn through a proportionate systematic random sample, using an interview schedule as a tool of data collection. The study found that knowledge of beneficiaries regarding the Lady Health Workers Program and their perspectives on the reason to avail services from LHWs are significantly associated with the reproductive health services provided by LHWs. Based on these findings it is recommended that awareness should be created through different campaigns about the services of LHWs, so that the maximum number of women could avail reproductive health services from LHWs.</p> Nazia Salah ud Din Nazia, Dr Tahira Jabeen Copyright (c) 2021 Nazia Salah ud Din Nazia, Dr Tahira Jabeen Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Emotions, Deception And Culture: An Ethno Pragmatic Perspective To Sensitize Deception Detection Methods <p>Research in deception detection has witnessed a lot of correspondence between deception and emotions. The increase in emotion words is attest ably one of the most reported deception cues which are believed to enjoy pan-cultural vitality. One interesting corollary of this assumption is the development of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), an automated textual analysis scheme that involves studying the emotional component present in someone’s speech or written response to detect deception. Set within this backdrop, this study problematizes the basic premise of this line of inquiry by invoking the intersection between language, culture and emotions. By citing evidence from cross-cultural and cross-linguistic studies of emotions, the paper enumerates various grounds that challenge across the board correspondence between emotions and deceptive speech. Since different cultures code emotions differently and set different expectations about up/down-regulation of emotions in their baseline speech, any analytical scheme based on Anglo culture and English language fails to attend to cultural variance concerning emotion and deception. As an alternate approach, the paper proposes to explicate culture-specific ‘emotion scripts’ by building culture-specific affect lexicons. Though obliquely related to empirical deception studies, such an approach is an efficient and reliable way to generate different baseline models of emotion which may systematically reflect in deceptive speech.</p> Saima Mubashra , Dr Ghazala Kausar Copyright (c) 2021 Saima Mubashra , Dr Ghazala Kausar Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Analyzing The Impact Of Youth Entrepreneurial Perspective On Sustainable Socio-Economic Growth Of Karachi <p>With a population of 215.25 million, Pakistan has been ranked six in the most populated countries, with a median age of 22.7 years. Thus, in 2021 Pakistan has the largest percentage of young people ever recorded in its history.27% of youth are fall between the 15-29 age group. For the sustainable socio-economic growth of Karachi, considering the global challenges of climate changes and technological disruptions, youth unemployment issues need to be resolved by evaluating youth (both male and female) perspectives and intentions regarding entrepreneurship and genders perspective and approaches for sustainable socio-economic development. Focused entrepreneurial skill acquisition through education and training and favourable conditions for new start-ups will help youth gain financial independence and gender equality to utilize their potential. The perspectives and data gained from this survey in 2016represent the views of Karachi’s youth, with questions going beyond entrepreneurship into views on economic conditions, Civic issues, and political affairs. Youth, a significant and defining part of society, need to be employed and involved in the city’s socio-economic development. Results show that 90% of the youth cohort, including male and female undergraduate and graduate students, envision entrepreneurship as their career path.&nbsp;</p> Salman Ahmed Khatani, Prof. Dr Shams Hamid Copyright (c) 2021 Salman Ahmed Khatani, Prof. Dr Shams Hamid Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Alluring Forces Of Housing Scheme Advertisements: A Critical Discourse Study <p>The aim of the present study is to figure out the alluring designs opted in different housing schemes advertisements while presenting them by affecting the global socio-cultural context. It includes the confirmation to the already prevailing ideological stances of the society, as people are more inclined towards giving preference to the modern living style than the simple ones. For the study purpose, three influential housing schemes (DHA, Bahria Town, and Eden homes) were chosen. The data was analyzed by adopting the 3-dimensional framework of Critical Discourse Analysis, integrated with Systemic Functional Linguistics and grammar of visual design. SFL provides a good framework for the textual analysis of the advertisements in the form of transitivity analysis. Therefore, this study is significant to highlight the stance of public exploitation by the advertisements, taking advertisements as an elusive tool to convince the public to buy the properties at high rates. Moreover, it also paves the way for the further exploration of the power endorsing tools, which control the public opinions related to housing schemes.</p> Sana Ghaffar Ghaffar, Dr. Mussarat Azher, Ms. AlMujtaba Cheema Copyright (c) 2021 Sana Ghaffar Ghaffar, Dr. Mussarat Azher, Ms. AlMujtaba Cheema Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Concept Of Deterrence And Its Relevance To South Asian Strategic Environment <p>Deterrence is considered to be dynamic and a powerful policy framework that remains sacrosanct. It fundamentally operates in the continuum of perception, in spite of being directly unified to the art of war which deals with reality. In the South Asian context, the overt nuclearization of India and Pakistan followed by intense phases of adversarial relationships witnessed that strategic stability persists and deterrence remained enduring; limiting all crises below a certain limit. However, the flip side remains that deterrence could not prevent crises initiation. In this paper, Pakistan’s deterrence regime in the overall ambit of its strategic culture has been debated. This paper also examines the relevance and applicability of deterrence in the Indo-Pak context focusing on its efficacy and challenges and proffer viable recommendations for ensuing sovereignty through deterrence and flexible strategic posturing options.</p> Shabnam Gul, Arslan Bin Shahid, Muhammad Faizan Asgher Copyright (c) 2021 Shabnam Gul, Arslan Bin Shahid, Muhammad Faizan Asgher Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Study On Child Labor As A Form Of Child Abuse In District Sargodha <p>Child labour is social issue of this present era in developing countries especially in Pakistan. The present study was carried out in Sargodha. The major objective of this study was to find out socio-economic and demographic condition of the respondents who are involved in child labour. Other objective was to find out prevalence of child abuse in child labour. The universe of this study from was the urban areas and semi urban areas of the district Sargodha which was consisting on hotels, workshops, tea stalls and brick-kilns where the child was doing their work as labour. 110 respondents were selected as a sample b using a convenient sampling technique. Then another sampling technique called multistage sampling was used for this study. Data was collected by developing an interview schedule that was well designed. Then next is the analysis of data that was done by using a statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). After all these steps the result of the study showed that many of the respondents were doing their work as labour due to the poor condition of their home and they support their family. It was also found out that the majority of the child labour was facing child abuse at their workplace. They should get education in order to grow and play their important role for the development of the country. For eliminating this issue Government and welfare departments should play their role to handle this situation.</p> Syeda Sidra Kazmi , Dr Yasir Nawaz Manj Copyright (c) 2021 Syeda Sidra Kazmi , Dr Yasir Nawaz Manj Tue, 07 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000