Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/administrator/PJASS4.PNG"></a></p> en-US (Editor) (Prof. Dr. Sakina Riaz) Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 A Comparative Analysis of Rudyard Kipling and Lord Byron’s Treatment of the Orient: Application of Edward Said’s Theory of Orientalism <p>This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of Lord Byron’s and Rudyard Kipling’s literary works. The study postulates the unique treatment of the Orient, which is idiosyncratic to the formerly mentioned writers. In their manipulation of the Orient for their own literary and cultural purposes, in their representation of the West as a superior geo-cultural reality over, Byron and Kipling employ images and rhetorical strategies which ensure their participation in an intertextual process of literary Orientalism. The research seeks to investigate their literary works displaying the influence and implications of socio-political relations between the West and the East. This study further analyzes how the hegemonic discourse, or the ideology of a dominant society, has essential, fixed, and divided identities through the construction of binary divisions of Western ideology as civilized and Others as savages. Edward Said’s theory of Orientalism (1978) is used as a lens to compare both writers. The research concludes that Orientalism is a major theme of Byron’s literary works; however, some critical romantic elements of Byron’s poetry overshadow the elements of Orientalism. On the contrary, Kipling’s sense of imperialism overwhelmed his poetic genius throughout his literary career; therefore, he is better known as an Orientalist in a true sense of the word.</p> Dur-e-Shahwar Ali, Dr. Sahar Afshan, Dr. Panira Ali Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth <p>Increasing trend of entrepreneurship across the globe may lead to higher economic growth. The trend and impact, however, may vary across different countries depending upon level of income. This study aims to analyze the impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth while considering control variables, as suggested in previous literature. Proxies of entrepreneurship taken in the estimations are business density, patent applications, and self-employment. Previous studies have estimated impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth but this study analyzes this impact for a large panel distributed in high- and middle-income countries with multiple proxies. Using the panel data for high- and low-income countries for each of the three proxies separately, six models are estimated. The most appropriate technique for estimation, based on pre and post estimation tests, is found to be fixed effect model except for one where random effect model is appropriate. Estimation results conclude that entrepreneurship has insignificant impact on economic growth. It may be due to insufficient entrepreneurship proxies. Differences in income and impact of control variables are too significant to explain variations in economic growth. This paper recommends to explore and develop comprehensive proxy of entrepreneurship and identify reasons behind lower effectiveness of entrepreneurial activities on economic growth.</p> Dr. Mirza Faizan Ahmed Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Familial and Socio-cultural Barriers Faced by Working Women: Evidence-Based study of District Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan <p>Women's empowerment through participation in the productive market is one of the most imperative aspects for the socio-economic growth and development of any nation. In recent decades, drastic changes have been observed in the role of women as they have made remarkable contributions and proved their abilities and capabilities in all spheres of life. Despite rapid globalization and astonishing improvement in the traditional role of women, gender segregation, discrimination, and masculine culture persist in families, communities, and productive sectors, especially in developing countries like Pakistan. Families are the basic, informal, and fundamental agents that provide rudiments and play a vital role in determining women's performance in their personal, social, and professional lives. To understand the familial and socio-cultural barriers faced by working women, this qualitative study obtained primary information through snowball and convenience sampling techniques from women working in different occupations in the district of Gujrat. The study focuses on women with more than five years of work experience. The study found that familial and socio-cultural barriers significantly affected the social, psychological, and physical health of working women. Findings indicated that women who belong to supportive families and societies have more confidence, participate in decision-making, possess better interpersonal communication skills, and play a significant productive role for their families and society.</p> Dr. Afzaal Afzal Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Nexus between Female Empowerment and Entrepreneurship: An Empirical Analysis for Pakistan <p>The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between Female Empowerment and Entrepreneurship in a society where women face strict societal norms. Female Empowerment raises resources/income, and confidence which is an important element for entrepreneurship. The earlier studies explored the links between empowerment and labor-force participation, but not find the linkages between empowerment and entrepreneurship. Further, the relationship between female empowerment and female entrepreneurship has not been explored after taking into account the bidirectional causality present between the two. The issue of endogeneity and censoring are comprehensively addressed here which were not addressed in earlier research. The study has employed cross-sectional data of PSLM/HIES for the period (2018-2019) and developed an Index through Principal Component Analysis (PCA) while for the assessment of the association between Female Empowerment and Entrepreneurship study has estimated two-steps IV-Tobit Model. Findings show, by developing an empowerment index, females have the decision-making power in household decisions related to purchasing of food, cloth, health-related issues, and child education. Results further conclude that female entrepreneurship enhances empowerment by giving financial security to females.</p> Dr. Humera Sultana Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Unveiling the Nexus Between Poverty and Higher Education: A Case Study of University of Balochistan, Quetta <p>This research article delves into the nexus between poverty and higher education in Balochistan, employing quantitative methods to unveil the barriers to pursuing higher education in one of the prestigious universities. The quantitative analysis highlights disparities in educational access and insights into students' experiences with financial hardships and compromises in lifestyle. It seeks to deepen understanding of how socio-economic conditions, including poverty, unemployment, and limited economic opportunities, shape students' educational experiences at the University of Balochistan with limited resources and opportunities. The study's findings underscore the potential of targeted interventions and inclusive strategies to promote educational equity and social mobility in Balochistan. These strategies can empower all individuals to access and succeed in higher education, thus contributing to broader socio-economic development in the region. To ensure students can pursue higher education, contribute to personal and professional growth, and ultimately uplift the nation's economic development.</p> Khadija Mengal Copyright (c) 2024 Fri, 08 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000