Emotions, Deception And Culture: An Ethno Pragmatic Perspective To Sensitize Deception Detection Methods

Authors

  • Saima Mubashra Assistant Professor of English Higher Education Department, Punjab
  • Dr Ghazala Kausar Assistant Professor in the Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan

Keywords:

Emotions, LIWC, Ethnopragmatics, Deception Detection, Affect Lexicon

Abstract

Research in deception detection has witnessed a lot of correspondence between deception and emotions. The increase in emotion words is attest ably one of the most reported deception cues which are believed to enjoy pan-cultural vitality. One interesting corollary of this assumption is the development of the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), an automated textual analysis scheme that involves studying the emotional component present in someone’s speech or written response to detect deception. Set within this backdrop, this study problematizes the basic premise of this line of inquiry by invoking the intersection between language, culture and emotions. By citing evidence from cross-cultural and cross-linguistic studies of emotions, the paper enumerates various grounds that challenge across the board correspondence between emotions and deceptive speech. Since different cultures code emotions differently and set different expectations about up/down-regulation of emotions in their baseline speech, any analytical scheme based on Anglo culture and English language fails to attend to cultural variance concerning emotion and deception. As an alternate approach, the paper proposes to explicate culture-specific ‘emotion scripts’ by building culture-specific affect lexicons. Though obliquely related to empirical deception studies, such an approach is an efficient and reliable way to generate different baseline models of emotion which may systematically reflect in deceptive speech.

References

Abel, T. (2008). Cultural components of deception (Vol. 3368120) [Alliant International University, Los Angeles]. https://search.proquest.com/docview/ 304827844?accountid=135034

Andrei, A. L. (2014). Development and Evaluation of Tagalog Linguistic Inquiry and word count (LIWC) Dictionaries for Negative and Positive Emotions. https://www.mitre.org/publications/technical-papers/development-and-evaluation-of-tagalog-linguistic-inquiry-and-word

Aranguren, M. (2015). Emotional mechanisms of social (re)production. Social Science Information, 54(4), 543–563. https://doi.org/10.1177/05390184155 98403

Buller, D., & Burgoon, J. (2006). Interpersonal Deception Theory. Communication Theory, 6, 203–242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1996.tb00127.x

Burgoon, J., Buller, D., Guerrero, L., Afifi, W., & Feldman, C. (1996). Interpersonal deception: XII. Information management dimensions underlying deceptive and truthful messages. Communication Monographs - COMMUN MONOGR, 63, 50–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/036377596 09376374

Burgoon, J. K., Le Poire, B. A., & Rosenthal, R. (1995). Effects of preinteraction expectancies and target communication on perceiver reciprocity and compensation in dyadic interaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31(4), 287–321. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1995.1014

Darwin, C. (1872). Expression of the emotions in man and animals. John Murray. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10001-000

DePaulo, B. M., Lindsay, J. J., Malone, B. E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Cooper, H. (2003). Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin, 129(1), 74–118. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.74

Dzokoto, V., Senft, N., Kpobi, L., & Washington-Nortey, P.-M. (2016). Their Hands Have Lost Their Bones: Exploring Cultural Scripts in Two West African Affect Lexica. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 45(6 LB-Dzokoto2016), 1473–1497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-016-9415-5

Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 6(3–4), 169–200. https://doi.org/10.1080/02699939208411068

Ekman, P., & Friesen, W. V. (1969). Nonverbal Leakage and Clues to Deception. Psychiatry, 32(1), 88–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/00332747.1969.11023575

Fehr, B., & Russell, J. A. (1984). Concept of emotion viewed from a prototype perspective. In Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (Vol. 113, Issue 3, pp. 464–486). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0096-3445.113.3.464

Filho, P. B., Pardo, T., & Aluísio, S. (2013). An Evaluation of the Brazilian Portuguese LIWC Dictionary for Sentiment Analysis. STIL.

Freud, S. (1953). Fragment of an analysis of a case of hysteria (1905 [1901]). In The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume VII (1901-1905): A Case of Hysteria, Three Essays on Sexuality and Other Works (pp. 1–122).

Gendron, M., Lindquist, K. A., Barsalou, L., & Barrett, L. F. (2012). Emotion words shape emotion percepts. Emotion (Washington, D.C.), 12(2), 314–325. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026007

Goddard, C. (1997). Cultural values and ‘cultural scripts’ of Malay (Bahasa Melayu). Journal of Pragmatics, 27(2), 183–201. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/ 10.1016/S0378-2166(96)00032-X

Goddard, C., & Wierzbicka, A. (2002). Semantic primes and universal grammar. In Meaning and Universal Grammar: Theory and Empirical Findings Volume I. John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Goddard, C., & Wierzbicka, A. (2004). Cultural scripts: What are they and what are they good for? In Intercultural Pragmatics (Vol. 1, p. 153). https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2004.1.2.153

Gupta, S. (2007). Modelling Deception Detection in Text [Queen’s University at Kingston]. http://hdl.handle.net/1974/922

Kecskes, I. (2014). Intercultural pragmatics. Oxford University Press.

Kimel, S. Y., Mischkowski, D., Kitayama, S., & Uchida, Y. (2017). Culture, Emotions, and the Cold Shoulder: Cultural Differences in the Anger and Sadness Response to Ostracism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 48(9), 1307–1319. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022117724900

Larcker, D. F., & Zakolyukina, A. A. (2012). Detecting Deceptive Discussions in Conference Calls. Journal of Accounting Research, 50(2), 495–540. https://doi.org/doi:10.1111/j.1475-679X.2012.00450.x

Levison, C. (2016). Levisen, Carsten (2016). The ethnopragmatics of speech acts in postcolonial discourse: “Truth” and “trickery” in a transculturated South Pacific tale. In S. Christoph & V. Laurenz (Eds.), Pragmatic perspectives on postcolonial discourse: Linguistics and literature (pp. 41–64). Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Lutz, C., & White, G. M. (1986). The Anthropology of Emotions. Annual Review of Anthropology, 15, 405–436. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2155767

M. DePaulo, B., A. Kashy, D., E. Kirkendol, S., M. Wyer, M., & Epstein, J. (1996). Lying in Everyday Life (Vol. 70). https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.5.979

M DePaulo, B., Lindsay, J. J., E Malone, B., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K., & Cooper, H. (2003). Cues to Deception. The American Society for Information Science and Technology, 129, 74–118. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.74

Mesquita, B., & Boiger, M. (2014). Emotions in Context: A Sociodynamic Model of Emotions. Emotion Review, 6(4), 298–302. https://doi.org/10.1177/1754073914534480

Mesquita, B., & Frijda, N. (1992). Cultural variations in emotions: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 179–204. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.179

Miyamoto, Y., & Ma, X. (2011). Dampening or savoring positive emotions: a dialectical cultural script guides emotion regulation. Emotion, 11(6), 1346–1357. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0025135

Newman, M. L., Pennebaker, J. W., Berry, D. S., & Richards, J. M. (2003a). Lying Words: Predicting Deception from Linguistic Styles. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(5), 665–675. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0146167203029005010

Newman, M. L., Pennebaker, J. W., Berry, D. S., & Richards, J. M. (2003b). Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. Society, 1901. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167203251529

Peeters, B. (2018). (White) lies and (pieux) mensonges: ethnolinguistic elaborations on not telling the truth. Etnolingwistyka. Problemy Języka i Kultury, 30, 169. https://doi.org/10.17951/et.2018.30.169

Pennebaker, J., Francis, L., & Booth, R. (2001). Linguistic inquiry and word count: LIWC2001. LIWC Operators Manual 2001.

Pennebaker, J. W., Boyd, R. L., Jordan, K., & Blackburn, K. (2015). The development and psychometric properties of LIWC2015.

Rubin, V. (2010). On Deception and Deception Detection: Content Analysis of Computer-Mediated Stated Beliefs (Vol. 47). https://doi.org/ 10.1002/meet.14504701124

Russell, J. (1994). Is there universal recognition of emotion from facial expression? A review of the cross-cultural studies. Psychological Bulletin, 115 1, 102–141.

Russell, J. A. (1991). Culture and the categorization of emotions. In Psychological Bulletin (Vol. 110, Issue 3, pp. 426–450). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.110.3.426

Santos, D., & Maia, B. (2018). Language, emotion, and the emotions: A computational introduction. Language and Linguistics Compass, 12(6), e12279. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/lnc3.12279

Thoits, P. A. (1989). The Sociology of Emotions. Annual Review of Sociology, 15, 317–342. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2083229

Toma, C. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2012). What Lies Beneath: The Linguistic Traces of Deception in Online Dating Profiles. Journal of Communication, 62(1), 78–97. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01619.x

Tsai, J., Knutson, B., & Fung, H. (2006). Cultural variation in affect valuation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 288–307. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0022-3514.90.2.288

Twitchell, D., Nunamaker, J., & Burgoon, J. (2004). Using speech act profiling for deception detection. Intelligence and Security Informatics, 403–410.

Van Swol, L., & Braun, M. (2014). Communicating Deception: Differences in Language Use, Justifications, and Questions for Lies, Omissions, and Truths. Group Decision and Negotiation, 23. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10726-013-9373-3

Van Swol, L. M., Braun, M. T., & Malhotra, D. (2012). Evidence for the Pinocchio Effect: Linguistic Differences Between Lies, Deception by Omissions, and Truths. Discourse Processes, 49(2), 79–106. https://doi.org/10.1080/0163853X.2011.633331

Vincent Marrelli, J. (2004). Different cultures, different ways of truth and deception. In Words in the Way of Truth: Truthfulness, Deception, Lying across Cultures and Disciplines (pp. 315–376). Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane. https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=0bf0PAAACAAJ

Vrij, A. (2000). Detecting lies and deceit : the psychology of lying and the implications for professional practice / Aldert Vrij. John Wiley.

Wierzbicka, A. (1991). Cross-cultural Pragmatics:The semantics of human interaction. Mouton De Gruyter.

Wierzbicka, A. (1992). Defining Emotion Concepts. Cognitive Science, 16(4), 539–581. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog1604_4

Wierzbicka, A. (1994). Emotion, language, and cultural scripts.

Wierzbicka, A. (1995). Emotion and Facial Expression: A Semantic Perspective. Culture & Psychology, 1(2), 227–258. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1354067X9512005

Wierzbicka, A. (1999). Emotions across Languages and Cultures: Diversity and Universals. In Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511521256

Wierzbicka, A. (2003). Cross-cultural pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. Walter de Gruyter.

Wierzbicka, A. (2010). Cultural scripts and intercultural communication. In A. Trosborg (Ed.), Pragmatics across Languages and Cultures. De Gruyter Mouton.

Wu, J., & Zhou, L. (2015). DOBNet: Exploiting the discourse of deception behaviour to uncover online deception strategies. Behaviour and Information Technology, 34(9), 936–948. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2015. 1016116

Zhou, L., Burgoon, J. K., Nunamaker, J. F., & Twitchell, D. (2004). Automating Linguistics-Based Cues for Detecting Deception in Text-Based Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communications. Group Decision and Negotiation, 13(1), 81–106. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:GRUP.0000011944.62889.6f

Downloads

Published

2021-09-07

How to Cite

Mubashra , S. ., & Kausar, G. (2021). Emotions, Deception And Culture: An Ethno Pragmatic Perspective To Sensitize Deception Detection Methods. Pakistan Journal of Applied Social Sciences, 12(2), 65–82. Retrieved from https://socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJASS/article/view/570

Issue

Section

Articles