An Evaluation Of Indicators Of Socio-Economic Deprivation: A Case Study Of The Slums Of Karachi, Pakistan
In Pakistan more than one third of its population continues to live below the poverty line (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2013). Recent research has shown that poverty is wide spread in both urban and rural areas and it is not only rural phenomenon. Since the past few decades, Karachi has experienced an inflow of migrants from all parts of Pakistan in search of better opportunities. Karachi has about 650 katchi abadis (squatter settlements) which are home to 50% of city’s population (Sindh Katchi Abadis Authority 2006). The objective of this study is to measure and analyse the nature and level of socio-economic deprivation as well as to find out the different forms of socio-economic deprivation. It is an exploratory cross-sectional study. Primary data is collected from 497 households of seven katchi abadis of Karachi to study the problem. Statistical tools of analysis i.e. coefficients of variance are used to analyse the relationship between two variables and indices of multiple deprivation are constructed to compute the different domains and levels of deprivation. It is evident from the outcomes of the findings of domains of deprivation that the significant proportion of population of Katchi Abadis i.e. approximately 50% of the households suffers from multiple deprivation. The findings emphasize that all settlements have deprivation in all domains (education, economic, housing quality and housing services deprivation, health deprivation); however each settlement has different issues and concerns priority wise. Index of multiple deprivation show 49% of households living below poverty line (US$ 1.25) experience multiple deprivation. The findings also reveal that 60% of households highly to moderately deprived as regards to levels of deprivation while 40% has low deprivation level. In order to increase the standard of living on the grass-root level, “Living Wages” should be used as the standard to measure people’s socio-economic wellbeing instead “Poverty” to maintain a decent standard of living for families of different sizes. Policies should be designed to decrease the level of unemployment on a scale needed for long term poverty alleviation, by creating environment that is conducive to private economic activity at the grass root level.
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Copyright (c) 2016 Dr. Kaneez Fatima Mamdani
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