Role of Parenting Practices to Construct Gender Roles Attitude among Children: A Cross-Sectional Study


  • Farah Adil Gender Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan/ Gender and Development Studies, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Dr. Raana Malik Department of Gender Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan


Gender , Parenting Practices , Gender Roles Attitude, Egalitarian, Traditional Gender Role


Parenting is a strong institution of socialization and parents have an essential role in transmitting gender roles and attitudes among children. Therefore, the present research aimed to explore gender differences in parenting practices among parents and their effect on children's gender roles attitudes. The positivist approach was followed in the present study and a cross-sectional design was applied to conduct surveys. The sample comprised both parents (n=250 mothers, n=250 fathers) and children (n=250 girls, n=250 boys) from families of Lahore, the most populous city and district of Punjab, Pakistan through a multi-stage stratified random sampling technique. The Alabama Parenting Questionnaire and Gender Roles Attitude Scale were used with the prior permission of the authors to collect data.  The statistical techniques MANOVA, ANOVA, and frequencies/ percentages were applied to analyze data. The findings revealed that mothers used 'involvement', and 'positive parenting' to socialize children as compared to fathers. Therefore, parents can influence their children's gender development through involvement and positive parenting to construct egalitarian gender roles attitudes, and behaviors among sons and daughters.


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How to Cite

Adil, F. ., & Malik, D. R. (2024). Role of Parenting Practices to Construct Gender Roles Attitude among Children: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 24(1), 38–52. Retrieved from