Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/administrator/PJGS.png"></a></p> Centre of Excellence for Women’s Studies, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2072-0394 Gender Difference in Sociocultural Attitude towards Appearance <p>The aim of this study was to find out the gender difference with reference to sociocultural attitude towards appearance among young adults. The sample consisted of 253 males and 256 female students of Karachi University with age range 18-24 years. Urdu translated version of Sociocultural Attitudes towards Appearance-4 (Thompson et al, 2015) scale was used to explore the gender difference in social and cultural aspect for ideal appearance. SATAQ-4 consist of five subscales two internal (thin/low body fat and muscular/ athlete) and three external (pressure peer, pressure family and pressure media). Males significantly scored higher on Internalization- Muscular/ Athletic and on all three subscales of external pressure (peer, family and media) as compared to female participants. The results of this study reveal that in our society, males are more conscious about their appearance and feel more pressure from external world through various means to retain their physique and fulfill social criteria of attractiveness. Although the female participants also facing internal pressures to have thin body having low fats to meet criteria of beauty as they scored higher on internalization - Thin / Low Body Fat subscale but the finding was insignificant.</p> <p><strong><u> </u></strong></p> <p>Keywords: Gender, appearance, SATAQ-4, Pakistan, young adults</p> Asma Latif Dr Bushra Khan Copyright (c) 2020 Asma Latif, Dr. Bushra Khan 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 1 24 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.95 Investigating The Cause Of High Attrition Rates In Women Employees Of Private Organisation <p>The main purpose of this study is to investigate the factors and causes of high attrition rates in women employees working in private organisations. The emphasis of this research is placed on factors and its impact on the decision of women for attrition. The research is quantitative in nature and data that is collected for this research using primary information which has been gathered through using survey questionnaire. The analysis of data is conducted using Smart-PLS. The results of this particular study conclude that uncongenial organisational culture, insufficient compensation, job satisfaction and social organisational practice have a significant impact on attrition of women working in private organisations. The implications of this research include that the atmosphere in most of the organisations are tough and overwhelming for women who have to manage their work as well as their responsibilities towards families and children.</p> Fahad Abdali Abuzar Wajidi Faraz Ahmed Wajidi Copyright (c) 2020 Fahad Abdali , Prof. Dr. M. Abuzar Wajidi , Dr.Prof.Faraz Ahmed Wajidi 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 25 40 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.445 Analysis Of Economic Vulnerability Among Elderly Widows In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan <p>In Pakistani society, elderly widows usually face economic problems. Poverty is considered one of the prominent problems of elderly widows. They are lacking education, formal employment experience, modernization, old age pension and control over property which promote poverty among them. The attitudes of family and society are also not cooperative towards elderly widows which intensify their economic vulnerability. This study has been conducted in District Dir lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Sample frame was available in the form of a list of elderly widows in the office of Pakistan Bait Ul Mal, Dir lower. After exempting the young widows (having age less than 60 years) from the list, the respondents were selected randomly from the list. Data has been collected from the respondents through in-depth interviews. This study reveals that most of the respondents are illiterate and hence ineligible for formal sector employment. They also do not get old age pension. The respondents are also deprived of the right to property inheritance. They are dependent upon others for the fulfillment of their basic needs. Education, formal sector employment and right to property inheritance can alleviate the poverty of elderly widows.</p> Hamid Alam Basharat Hussain Copyright (c) 2020 Hamid Alam, Dr.Basharat Hussain 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 41 58 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.516 Role of Public Service Awareness Messages in Developing Precautionary Attitude towards Breast Cancer Detection Among Pakistani Women <p>The study was aimed at scrutinizing the effects of the Public Service Awareness Messages about breast cancer detection among women in terms of developing precautionary measures for the life-threatening disease in order to fight against it before time. Breast Cancer is the most common cancer among the women around the world and especially in Pakistan. The study has been carried out with a survey with 300 women of Lahore, Pakistan and found that Public Service Awareness Messages have been significantly perceived by them. PSAMs are important tool for providing information and spreading awareness regarding the disease. The fear appeal of the messages changed the behavior of the viewers for taking precautionary measures. Public Service Awareness Messages regarding healthcare make people conscious about their health and they believe that precautionary measures can prevent the dreadful comings of this disease.</p> Moneeba Iftikhar Zahid Yousaf Copyright (c) 2020 Moneeba Iftikhar, Dr.Zahid Yousaf 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 59 78 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.517 Gender Pay Gap Among Urban-Urban Migrant Workers: Pakistan's Two-Tier Urban Labor Market <p>Urban-urban migration has socio-economic and demographic consequences on the labor markets. It affects job mobility and gender-balance in the urban workplace. This study analyzes the gender wage gap among urban-urban migrant workers in Pakistan. The study used the most recent Labour Force Survey, a nationally representative dataset, to identify the determinants of wages for male and female migrant workers separately. The wages of urban-urban female migrants tend to be 45% lower than their male counterparts. The results indicated disparities in working hours and human capital endowment as some of the contributing factors to the increasing gender wage gap. This research calls for implementing drastic measures, i.e., gender-insensitive capacity building of urban migrant workers, workplace incentives for women, and enhancement of women leadership roles, to reduce gender inequalities in the urban labor market.</p> <p> </p> Muhammad Umair Lubna Naz Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Umair, Dr. Lubna Naz 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 79 96 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.518 Harassment At Workplaces: Experiences Of Working Women <p>Harassment is a susceptible theme in socialization. It is the threatening behavior by any person or group at any place and workplace harassment is one of them. Workplace harassment is one of very sensitive areas and gaining attention by professionals and researchers. Dealing with workplace harassment is one of key indicator of effective organization. As per studies &amp; observations harassment happens in the workplaces but no proper record. The complete&nbsp; study&nbsp; on main theme was the thesis/research work with primary objective to study the experiences of working women regarding harassment at educational institutions from School level to University level, since the current paper is one part from the thesis work which&nbsp; only explores the experiences of working women at School levels consequently this research paper was to study the experiences of working women regarding harassment while working with the heads and the colleagues in public schools, consequently the study was descriptive by nature, survey method was used for data collection. The population of the study was the working women of the public schools of SBA District. Sixty five percent working women were selected as sample by the convenient random sampling for the collection of data. The Study was initiated on the basis of seven research questions which based on seven main themes related to harassment, so the items of the tool based on these themes as a result questionnaire with five points Likert was developed for data collection which was analyzed statistically. Study revealed level of experiences of women regarding verbal, physical, psychological, discriminatory, religious, cyber and immoral harassment in workplace while teaching, attending meetings, communicating with heads, colleagues and staff members. They were sometimes targeted and teased by shouting, humiliating and degrading behavior, abusive languages, frequently jokes, bullying, attacks and assaults or threats within selected Schools. It was mainly recommended that the enforcement of the law should be made sure and the heads of the institutions should provide harassment free environment for the working women.</p> Mureed Hussain Laghari Tayyaba Zarif Safia Urooj Copyright (c) 2020 Mureed Hussain Laghari, Prof.Dr.Tayyaba Zarif, Dr. Safia Urooj 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 97 122 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.519 Normative Model Of New-Woman: A Discourse Of Ten Female Protagonists Of Urdu TV Drama Serials (2010-2019) <p>This paper examines the normative model of ‘new woman’ (Dutoya 2018) in Pakistani dramas from the perspective of gender, class, and culture. TV drama is a predominant form of entertainment in Pakistani media. In early Urdu dramas, female characters are infrequently depicted in a progressive way but now, educated, independent, and urban middle-class women can generally be observed in lead and supporting roles. Along with a shift of female representation in Pakistani Urdu dramas, the study discusses the construction of a Pakistani normative model of ‘new womanhood.’ Through a qualitative content analysis of ten female protagonists from Pakistani Urdu TV dramas of last decade (2010 through 2019), I argue that Dutoya’s socially permissible model of ‘new woman’ can be noticed in the majority of contemporary Urdu dramas. In other words, female protagonists are portrayed with diverse attributes of modesty and modernity. I further argue that the idea of ‘new woman’ is not a new phenomenon for the Pakistani society. Unlike a colonial idea of ‘super wife’ and Victorian concept of ‘super woman,’ my assertion is that Pakistani version of ‘new woman’ is a response to western wave of feminism, religious orthodoxy at home, and cultural conservatism prevalent in Pakistan.</p> Saleem Abbas Firasat Jabeen Muhammad Askari Copyright (c) 2020 Dr.Saleem Abbas, Dr.Firasat Jabeen, Muhammad Askari 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 123 138 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.520 The Islamic Banking Sector Of Pakistan: The Impact Of Leadership Opportunities, Gender Differences, Working Conditions And Employee Performance On Job Satisfaction Of Female Employees Of The Industry <p>The findings of this research study is constructed depending the role of women in Islamic Banking industry of Pakistan. It has been conducted with an objective to determine the contrast of leadership opportunities, gender differences, working condition, employee performance with Job Satisfaction. The data has been collected from 200 male and female participants, representing the Islamic Banking Sector of Pakistan (Meezan Bank, Dubai Islamic Bank and Bank Islami). The result of the research shows a positive association in the selected dependent and independent variables. The study result further supports that in the current scenario the male gender participation for authoritative and leadership position is comparatively high as paralleled to female in the Pakistani Islamic Banking Sector of Pakistan. Further, it reveals that male working employees in the Islamic banking sector of Pakistan are far more satisfied as compared to female working participants. The result has reflected that the constructed model is significant (at the p &lt; 0.001 level).&nbsp; The findings of this particular study possibly may assist the upper management to revisit their working environment policies and practices to consider females as equally responsible for challenging leadership roles, providing career path opportunities, and to promote Equal Employment Opportunities (EEO) in organizations.</p> Sobia Iqbal Khalid Mehmood Iraqi Copyright (c) 2020 Sobia Iqbal, Prof.Dr. Khalid Mehmood Iraqi 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 139 158 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.521 Women Suffering During Armed Conflict In Pakistan <p>The article is on international humanitarian law (IHL) and is a selective examination of the situation of armed conflict in a context to gender specific crime most relevant to Pakistan. Pakistan remains engage in multiple and overlapping conflicts since decades. It started from Afghanistan and since then Pakistan faces heavy losses in term of human and economic loss both. Pakistan has been tremendously damaged from inside, the trade and businesses, investments, shifting downs of the imports and exports and lack of foreign tourism, all of this had created a chaos in the country. This article talks about the impacts of armed conflict on women. Other most traumatic impacts happen when women are sexually abused and children enlisted as child soldier, women and children become displaced refugee, and public health organization, are lacking or inaccessible.</p> Tahreem Farrukh Ghous Muhammad Farrukh Naseem Qureshi Copyright (c) 2020 Tahreem Farrukh, Justice (R) Prof. Dr. Ghous Muhammad, Farrukh Naseem Qureshi 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 159 176 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.522 Women's Experiences And Perspectives Of Induced Abortions In Urban Slum Areas Of Karachi, Pakistan <p>Unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes in developing countries where the rate of obtaining an abortion is high due to financial issues and the desire of a male child. This paper is extracted from a study about roles of midwives in unsafe and induced abortions in the urban slums of Karachi city. The objective of this paper is to discuss the causes of induced abortions and to explore the experiences of women having induced abortions. The study was conducted through interviewing schedule based upon open and close ended questions. The interview guide included questions about the causes of abortions, problems faced by women during the process, and effects on their social and economic aspects of their lives. Results show that the major reason of induced abortion is poverty, including others like large family size and family pressure due to economic burden, male child preference, social stigmas and sometimes due to partner choice. Findings of the study suggest that abortion is a traumatic experience which involved intentional death of an unborn child. It has also been discovered that women experience abortion, felt grief, shame, sorrow, and depression. The study concludes that induced abortion is used as a contraceptive method by poor women. As they are performed in unhygienic and illegal methods, they become a health risk which affects women lives socially, economically, physically and psychologically. The findings of the study will help in understanding the problems faced by women having induced abortions. Additionally, it would also assist in developing gender based reproductive health programs in developing countries.</p> Zain Iftikhar Shagufta Nasreen Copyright (c) 2020 Zain Iftikhar, Dr. Shagufta Nasreen 2020-09-08 2020-09-08 20 2 177 200 10.46568/pjgs.v20i2.523