Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></p> Centre of Excellence for Women’s Studies, University of Karachi en-US Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies 2072-0394 Exploring the Influence of Psychological Inflexibility on Depression, Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and Gender Disparities among Individuals with Chronic Illnesses <p>This research's goal was to explore the Influence of Psychological Inflexibility on Depression, Anxiety, Self-Efficacy, and Gender Disparities among Individuals with Chronic Illnesses." Sialkot, Pakistan. Chronically ill patients may prioritize the management of physical pain. It is important to also address mental health issues that may arise from psychological inflexibility. This psychological trait can have a negative impact on patients' mental health, leading to conditions such as anxiety and depression, and can also lower their self-efficacy. This study examined the mental health disorders like anxiety and depression developed due to psychological inflexibility in patients suffering from chronic pain. The research participants comprised one hundred and twenty (120) patients suffering from chronic illnesses, ranging from twenty to fifty (20-50) years old individuals, and opted through purposive sampling. The information was gathered using the three questionnaires along with demographic and onset forms. The data analysis was done through SPSS and it was revealed through correlation analysis that Psychological Inflexibility, Anxiety, Depression, and Self-efficacy have a significant relationship with each other. Moreover, the evidence of the t-test suggested, that there is a substantial variation between men and women concerning the level of self-efficacy and anxiety. Evaluation of Linear Regression revealed that anxiety and self-efficacy are high predictors of psychological inflexibility. Results are discussed to explain the findings about Pakistan culture and previous empirical evidence.</p> Aisha Shakeel Meera Irshad Eman Ameer Copyright (c) 2023 Ms Aisha Shakeel, Meera Irshad, Eman Ameer 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 1 21 An Ethnographical Research On Gender-Based Buying Behavior In Traditional And Electric Vehicles (EVs) <p>This study seeks to understand gender differences in vehicle preferences, particularly income, electric vehicles (EVs), and traffic policies among Pakistani citizens. A sample of six Pakistani citizens aged twenty-five to fifty was surveyed through in-depth audio interviews. Data was subsequently analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Both genders expressed concerns over vehicle prices, environmental pollution, and traffic policies. However, they differed in their opinions on vehicle size, design, features, and technical specifics. Concerns about fuel consumption and the high costs of EVs were consistent across both genders. Six individuals were interviewed that may not comprehensively represent the larger Pakistani population. Future studies may consider expanding the sample size and exploring additional demographic factors to enhance generalizability. Insights from this study can guide automobile manufacturers in catering to the nuanced needs of both genders, potentially leading to increased market capture and customer satisfaction. The prominence of concerns shared across genders also underscores areas the automobile industry should prioritize. While numerous studies have explored gender preferences in vehicle choices, this research bridges previously unidentified gaps, particularly the intertwining of gender preferences with factors such as income, EV considerations, and traffic regulations in the context of the Pakistani populace.</p> Ammad Zafar Irfan ul Haque Sherbaz Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Dr Ammad Zafar, Mr. Irfan ul Haque, Mr Sherbaz Khan 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 23 52 Examining the Influence of Women in Leadership Roles and Their Impact on Administrative Effectiveness in Private Secondary Schools <p>The increasing presence of women in leadership positions within educational institutions has ignited discussions regarding their profound influence on administrative effectiveness. This comprehensive study delves into the impact of women in leadership roles within the specific context of private secondary schools. The persistent underrepresentation of women in leadership positions has remained a longstanding concern within educational institutions, prompting an urgent need to understand the dynamics of their leadership contributions.This research adopts a qualitative approach. An extensive content analysis of pertinent documents and reports from the available literature provides augmenting and insights. Preliminary findings underscore the invaluable perspectives, skills, and distinctive leadership styles that women in leadership roles bring to the administrative landscape of private secondary schools. Their influence transcends the boundaries of formal decision-making processes, extending into the cultivation of inclusive and collaborative work environments. Furthermore, their leadership is a driving force behind the promotion of diversity, equity, and the encouragement of innovative educational practices. Notably, it has been acknowledged that the presence of women in leadership roles positively impacts staff morale and student outcomes. Nevertheless, persistent challenges such as gender bias, stereotypes, and limited representation persist and hinder the complete realization of the potential impact of women in leadership. The findings of this research significantly contribute to the ongoing discourse on gender diversity in educational leadership, providing nuanced insights into the multifaceted ways in which women in leadership roles can shape administrative effectiveness. Furthermore, this study establishes a foundation for future research and the development of strategic initiatives aimed at fostering gender equality in leadership positions within private secondary schools. Ultimately, these efforts will yield benefits for both educational institutions and the students they serve.</p> Ayesha Aslam Copyright (c) 2023 Ms. Ayesha Aslam 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 53 65 A Bad Woman’s Poetry and Her Reclamation for an Authentic Self in Gendered Spaces: The Poetics of Pain, Identity and Resistance in Kishwar Naheed’s Poems <p>This article carries out a (con) textual analysis of Naheed’s selected poems from a postcolonial feminist lens, with a particular focus on the notions of identity and resistance in indigenous patriarchal spaces. To reinforce rigid patriarchal gender binaries, Zia's military regime has promoted the stereotype of a good and a bad woman, and Naheed's selected feminist poems seem to question the state-promoted concept of a good woman, and her women also cherish being known as bad ones. By situating Naheed's selected poems within the socio-political context of the Zia regime, when the country witnessed the emergence of misogyny in the form of anti-women laws and experienced the clash between regressive religious policies and progressive feminist thoughts promoted by the feminist segment of Pakistani society, I will respond to two important questions: 1) How do Naheed's bad women as doubly marginalized others renegotiate their identities and mobility within patriarchal urban spaces? 2) How is re-articulating the notion of a bad woman, promoting an alternative female agency in Urdu feminist poetry? To this end, Spivak's politics of "Vetretung” and “Darstellung” are deployed to examine the relationship between the formulated feminist identities and the dominant patriarchal praxis of everyday life. Sara Ahmed’s concept of embodiment is employed to analyze the way Naheed’s women constantly mediate their relationship with their bodies, both inside and outside their homes. Thus, I conclude that her poetry explores the concept of ‘othernesses’ from a different dimension and creates counter-discourses that unearth the silenced female experiences.</p> Khamsa Qasim Copyright (c) 2023 Ms Khamsa Qasim 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 67 82 Examining the Legal Dimensions of ILO’s Various Conventions and Their Adherence in Pakistan Concerning Labour Safety and Security <p>This study paper depicts various legal aspects of the 'Safety &amp; Security' of workers not only under the prevailing labour laws in the country but also in the light of international bindings through ILO Conventions # 155 (1981) and 187 (2006), it is an obligation for the state to provide safety and security to workers. Further, in terms of ILO's Conventions, 87 and 98 to which Pakistan is a signatory and its compliance seems to be binding on the country i.e. 'Freedom of Association' and 'Right to organize and collective bargaining', respectively. Also, various aspects are discussed under prevailing Labour Laws i.e. Industrial Relations Act (IRA) 2012. The main objective of this paper is to identify and ensure welfare and provisions of safety and security to the workers/workmen. However, the above conventions have also been given constitutional protection through Article 17 of the 1973 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. In this regard, the applied research methodology under Thematic Analysis has been the main source of this paper which includes various secondary sources such as documents, and newspaper-published articles. In the discussion part, the study uncovered real-life incidents that took place due to a lack of safety and security that depicts that Pakistan needs to work more efficiently or should have monitoring teams to look up security and safety measures for labour in the economy.</p> Khawaja Tajammul Hussain Qamar Abad Copyright (c) 2023 Mr. Khawaja Tajammul Hussain, Prof. Dr. Qamar Abad 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 83 99 Gender and Built Environment: Exploring Co-Design as a Tool to Empower the Marginalized <p>In a patriarchal society like Pakistan where people are marginalized based upon their gender and socio-economic class, women from working class and transgender communities are often the most relegated. The built environment is a factor that affects everyone living in the city, and so it does the marginalized genders. However, they never have a voice and most of the time not even has an understanding of what they want from their built environment. Moreover, to make the matter worse, the mainstream architectural and urban design practices and research in Pakistan is rarely focused on the problems faced by these genders and communities. This paper attempts to use co-design to give these genders a voice and explore their understanding and expectations of their city. This study is generated through a class group project where co-design was explored as an idea and activities were designed to engage with the targeted genders, with a focus on exploring their perception of the context of Lahore, Pakistan. Data generated from these activities in the form of a series of imaginative drawings is used to perceive how these marginalized genders experience the built environment of Lahore and what changes they would like to see in their city.</p> Mamuna Iqbal Fareena Shahid Naveen Zaman Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Mamuna Iqbal, Fareena Shahid, Naveen Zaman 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 101 122 Gendered Patterns of School Dropout Due to Child’s Unpaid Work in Family in Sindh <p>Children's involvement in work has the potential to affect their school attendance across the globe. The present research is particularly focusing on differences in male and female children’s school dropout due to involvement in unpaid family work in Sindh, Pakistan. This is a cross-sectional research done with a one-time collection of data from 5641 school dropout children in Sindh during the year 2018-19. The statistical analysis of quantitative data is done by applying the Independent Samples t-test. The survey of school dropout children in Sindh is done with the help of a closed-ended questionnaire. The data was collected to assess school dropout children's responses to their involvement in unpaid work in the family as a cause of their dropout from school. The study found that 15.9% of students agreed to have left school due to domestic chores. Almost the same proportion (15%) left due to younger siblings' related childcare responsibilities, and 20.9% left the school due to working in the family field or with domestic cattle. The t-test results show a significant difference in male and female children leaving school due to unpaid work in the family. It is inferred that more girls leave school due to their involvement in unpaid work in the family as compared to boys in Sindh. The results of the study will inform effective educational policy development in Sindh.</p> Naima Tabassum Copyright (c) 2023 Dr Naima Tabassum 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 123 139 Blindness and Norms of Femininity in Pakistan: Negotiation with Disabled Identity <p>This article investigates how disabled women shape their subjective understanding of gender and disability and develop negotiating strategies to deal with patriarchal norms. By analyzing the biographies of three young bling women, I understand how familial socioeconomic background influences the lived experiences of blind women that are embedded around gender and disability. I deployed qualitative methodology and used a biographical interview technique to collect data. The findings reveal that blind women across all social classes use higher education as a means to alleviate disability stigmatization. However, the societal imposition of being able to fulfill the feminine norms prevents blind women from resisting patriarchy. Therefore, highly educated blind women strongly conform to feminine role fulfillment to gain social recognition as 'women' and reject the disabled identity that is imposed on them by society.</p> Sadia Akbar Copyright (c) 2023 Dr Sadia Akbar 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 141 164 Cultural Diversity Management: Heading Towards Sustainable Education in Public Sector Universities of Pakistan <p>This paper aims to cultivate a cross-cultural concept and build upon Cultural Competence (CC) that may play an important role in reconciling the discrepancy and dissonance between sub-cultures and the resulting disruption examining the behavioral pattern of faculty and staff in different cultural settings. It investigates how the contemporary set of values temperates the effects of customs on interpersonal work relationships and performance, within and across cultures. Heading with a methodological approach, it takes into account the perspectives of faculty members with different service periods as they are the major stakeholders. The present paper concludes that cultural competence is a tool that introduces a new version of management with expansive thinking patterns motivating faculty members to touch new heights of performance. Relevant information is gathered from three public sector universities of Pakistan using a purposive sampling technique through a questionnaire while the sample size includes 112 responses. SPSS was used for the analysis and instrument reliability was tested through Cronbach Alpha. The correlational Regression Model affirmed the notion that Cultural Competence has a positive and significant relationship with the performance of teachers. The research concludes that CC can help in the diversity management of faculty performance on the grounds of its social and economic benefits.</p> Seema Khalid Copyright (c) 2023 Seema Khalid 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 165 179 Psychological Well-being of Divorced and Married Mothers and their Children’s Psychological Difficulties <p id="E430" class="x-scope qowt-word-para-2">The study aimed to examine the psychological well-being of divorced and married mothers and their children's psychological difficulties. Cross-sectional research design and purposive sampling techniques were used. The participants for the current study consisted of 120 mothers (60 divorced mothers / 60 married mothers) with an age range of 25-40 years. The divorced mothers were selected from Lahore High Court with a duration of a minimum of one year of divorce. Those mothers having children (male/female) with an age range of 4 to 10 years were included. Demographics along with respective variable questionnaires were given to the subjects for collecting information from them. Simple Linear Regression and Independent sample t-tests were used for analysis. The analysis of the variables indicates that mother's psychological well-being significantly predicts the psychological difficulties of their children (p&gt; .05) i.e., emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity, and peer problems. Results showed that children of divorced mothers have more psychological difficulties as compared to children of intact families. The findings also depicted that there is a significant difference between children's psychological difficulties of divorced and married mothers. This study helps raise community awareness of children's experiences and mother's well-being after divorce.</p> Urooj Sadiq Maryam Abbas Musfirah Nasr Chaudhry Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Urooj Sadiq, Ms. Maryam Abbas, Ms. Musfirah Nasr Ch 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 181 195 Impact of Social Factors on Inequality in Healthcare Access among Rural Females: A Study in District Sargodha <p class="Abstract">The primary objective of the research was to ascertain the social determinants that underlie the rural female population's ability to obtain healthcare services. This research also aimed to examine the association between gender discrimination and various other socio-cultural inequalities rural women face in Pakistan regarding their access to healthcare. The nature of the study was quantitative and descriptive, utilising a cross-sectional approach. The Universe of the study was based on district Sargodha and a multi-stage sampling technique was applied. The present study employed a simple random sampling design to select the tehsils, union councils, and villages. In contrast, a convenient sampling technique was utilised to select the respondents (who were young and adult women). The sample size was comprised of 200 respondents. Data were collected using a questionnaire, which underwent pretesting. The data were analysed using SPSS software, in which frequencies, percentages, and Chi-square Tests were applied for hypotheses testing. The results validate the existence of a pervasive gender-based disparity in healthcare accessibility for women residing in rural areas. The results validate the existence of a pervasive gender-based disparity in healthcare accessibility for women residing in rural areas. This analysis suggests that social factors contribute to differences in healthcare access for individuals facing various economic, social, and psychological challenges. Women who lack efficient ownership, control, or access to resources and healthcare amenities are particularly affected, leading to difficulty achieving a basic standard of living. The study advocates for the imperative of ensuring the complete involvement of women in social and political domains to enable their meaningful contribution towards the development process.</p> Zebish Shah Tauqeer Ahmed Lak Azka Murtaza Copyright (c) 2023 Ms. Zebish Shah, Mr. Tauqeer Ahmed Lak, Ms. Azka Murtaza 2023-09-08 2023-09-08 23 2 197 215