Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></p> en-US (Dr. Asma Manzoor) (Pakistan Jounral of Gender Studies) Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Analysis of the Socio-Economic Conditions and Living Arrangements of Aged Widows of Rural Sindh <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p> </p> <p>This paper presents outcomes of a study that was conducted to assess myriad problems faced by old widows in rural areas of second largest province of Pakistan, Sindh. As already, there is inadequate data on the social, economic and living arrangements of aged widows of Rural Sindh. Through this research survey, gap of information on social, economic, and living arrangements of Sindhi rural aged widows is filled by primary survey data. The sample of 384 Respondents of age 60 and above was chosen by infinite population formula and respondents for collecting data were selected by using convenience sampling technique from the six rural districts of Sindh. Descriptive statistics were applied to analyze data. The results suggest that there is strong preference of son and who is considered as old age protection for aged widows, and even today residing with son is regarded as popular cultural practice in Rural Sindh. The high number of aged widows was economically dependent on their sons. Absence of old age pension, no parallel remuneration and lack of skills in aged widows are some factors which are strongly influencing and creating very severe socio-economic consequences for widows in later age. Also, because of urbanization, the extended family culture is transforming to nuclear family drastically and ultimately, it is affecting largely on the living arrangements of aged widows.</p> Mr. Ali Raza Mugheri , Dr. Ali Gul Khushik, Zareen Qadeer Copyright (c) 2023 Mr. Ali Raza Mugheri , Dr. Ali Gul Khushik, Zareen Qadeer Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Marriages, New Women and Changing Intra-Group Dynamics of the Trader Families in Rawalpindi <p>This research expounds on the question of how the micro-foundations of power are constituted and manifested in middle class trader families? In the pursuit of answering this question, the present study aims to focus on the domestic sphere of traders who primarily belong to Nirankari Bazaar<sup>1</sup> in Rawalpindi, historically a mercantilist city<sup>2</sup>. This work is based on my ethnographic study and observation of the community norms and practices within the homes of the traders. This work will explore how relationships in the domestic sphere are made, contested and befriended so as to know how the intra-group dynamics unfold in traders’ families. The underlying focus of this is to understand the significance of women of traders in the making of the families, formulating or breaking linkages to consolidate or disintegrate the economic position of the trader. In this regard, we look at the institution of marriage as the basic unit of intra-group dynamics and relationships whereby ‘new’ relatives are designated as instrumental drivers of the family and house. The central argument in this study is how the <em>new </em>woman after being included in the trader household is expected to connect or disconnect family unity and property which is a marker of significance for the trader. The paper draws semblance with literature on domestic relationships in Punjab from the historic, economic and social context. Further, the paper is based on the theoretical foundation from Levi-Strauss’s structural analysis within anthropology that explains, society as like language is based on rules and patterns that constitute the deeply embedded structures within. The embedded or <em>unconscious</em><sup>3</sup> structure in this case of marriage determines the subsequent <em>conscious</em><sup>4</sup> social relations and practices of making and unmaking alliances in the trader household. This purpose of the research is to elucidate the role of new women in contouring family dynamics despite the dominance of men in the traders families.</p> Amna Hafeez Mobeen Copyright (c) 2023 Amna Hafeez Mobeen Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Earning Difference between Public and Private Sector of Pakistan <p>The study is an attempt to observe the earning differences between male and female of the public and private sector in Pakistan by employing nationally representative Pakistan Labor Force Survey (PLFS) data for the period 2006 - 2021. In order to perform a detailed comparative analysis of the earning difference, the private sector is further segregated into formal and informal sectors. Empirical evidences acquired by employing Pseudo panel technique, ascertain that earning differences in the public sector are low compared to the private sector. Public sector is performing a fair role in reducing gender earning difference in Pakistan. It is concluded that the female employees of informal sector are more exploited compared to the formal sector in both public and private sector because of the female vulnerability. Migration from rural to urban areas contributes significantly in reducing wage differential across genders.</p> <p> </p> Dr. Asghar Ali, Dr. Noman Saeed, Mr. Sohail Javed Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Asghar Ali, Dr. Noman Saeed, Mr. Sohail Javed Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Women’s Portrayal In Pakistani Print Advertisements: A Comparative Study Based On Semiotics <p>This study investigates how Pakistani still advertisements portray women and construct certain ideology. This qualitative research employs semiotic method to analyze the content. With stratified sampling technique, six advertisements have been selected all together that appeared in different magazines and in social media campaign of different products during the year 2019 taken mainly from Duniya Sunday Magazine, Weekly Akhbar-e-Jahan and social media pages of particular products. The selected advertisements analyzed the representation of Pakistani women in given time period with the help of semiotic analysis, whereas, the psychological lens is used to unveil the meaning and message constructed by specific signs within the advertisements. This study has examined the advertisers’ practice in depicting and constituting female identity in Pakistan, where most of the advertisements reveal Pakistani women as independent, confident and modern beings. This study will develop inferential and critical comprehension among masses regarding science of signs; also it would be significant for experts and policy makers who can retrieve Pakistani cultural elements while executing advertisements in future.</p> <p> </p> Maheen Fatima, Maimoona Moin Copyright (c) 2023 Maheen Fatima, Maimoona Moin Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Women Empowerment Vis-A-Vis Social Development in Globalized World <p>Women empowerment means a woman has enough power to decide her good or bad, and with this, a woman has her own decision in her all matters. According to some estimates, the population of women is nearly half or in some way or other more than the population of men in this world. In this way, the empowerment of women has always been a topic of great importance in social research. Women empowerment has some benefits in the globalized world and then these benefits and advantages are also transcended to the societal level. The research is a qualitative analysis with the incorporation of a little factual knowledge related to the under-discussed theme. It has been observed that whenever women are empowered in any part of this globalized world they contribute to the development, whether it is social development or economic development. Depending upon the availability of chances they were given, they always prove themselves as productive as a male member of any society.</p> Dr. Muneera Houth, Dr. Syed Shahabuddin Hashmi, Dr. Rukshanda Zarar Copyright (c) 2023 Dr. Muneera Houth, Dr. Syed Shahabuddin Hashmi, Ms. Rukshanda Zarar Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Critical Analysis of Teachers’ Autonomy in Public Sector Universities of Balochistan <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the autonomy level of teachers, serving on various levels in public sectors universities of Balochistan. Quantitative research method was used to investigate the research problem. Population of the study include all lecturers, assistant professors, associate professors, and professors of 09 public sector universities of Balochistan. From these universities, 04 were selected through simple random sampling procedure as a sample for the study. In the next stage, 116 male and female lecturers, assistant professors, associate professors, and professors opinions were sought out through google survey. For data collection purpose, a standardized questionnaire was used and modified according to the local context. As data was not normally distributed thus nonparametric statistics i.e. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests were applied to analyze the data. Results showed that teachers’ autonomy level is poor regarding various aspects of their teaching such as assessment, communication with higher authorities as well students’ parents and classroom management. Necessary recommendations were made to concerned authorities. </p> Ms. Nosheen Kanwal , Dr. Muhabat Khan , Ms. Noreen Kanwal Copyright (c) 2023 Ms. Nosheen Kanwal , Dr. Muhabat Khan , Ms. Noreen Kanwal Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Gender-Based Violence in Punjab: An Analysis of Punjab Protection of Women against Violence Act, 2016 <p>Pakistan still has a patriarchal and feudal social structure where women face violence and discrimination for being women in every sphere of their lives. Over the decades, to reduce the violence and discrimination against women, the government have taken several legislative measures to ensure an improved and equal status for women, but the situation has not been much improved. It is argued that the underlying reason lies in the lack of will at the implementation stage, where male-dominated government institutions support the patriarchal structures. However, the government of Punjab took legislative measures, in the form of the Punjab Protection of Women against Violence Act (PPWVA) 2016, to protect women from violence and abuse, and to provide justice. The objective of this study is to analyse the situation of violence against women in Punjab and examine the formulation and implementation process of legislation in Punjab for the protection of women against violence, and suggest recommendations for effective implementation of the law.</p> Sara Ahmad Copyright (c) 2023 Sara Ahmad Wed, 08 Mar 2023 00:00:00 +0000