Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/administrator/PJGS.png"></a></p> en-US (Dr Nasreen Aslam Shah) (Pakistan Jounral of Gender Studies) Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Dilemmas Of Singlehood In Contemporary Pakistani Culture: A Qualitative Study Of Unheard Voices <p>Marriage has always been central to women’s lives in Pakistan and to remain single is not only considered socially unacceptable but also perceived as non-compliance to the cultural hegemony of the institute of marriage. Pakistan is a country where marriage is considered mandatory and singlehood is viewed as anomalous particularly in the case of women. The present study put light on the experiences of those women who remain unmarried in a traditional society like Pakistan where women are generally seen only as wives and mothers. This study attempted to analyse the perspectives of never-married women with greater emphasis on the issues and challenges faced by them. The primary objective of this paper is to highlight the cultural and psycho-social aspects of<br />singlehood and to voice the opinions and ‘lived experiences’ of the never-married female from their perspective. In Pakistani culture, women are generally expected to get married by their mid-twenties. The study was conducted with the help of a qualitative phenomenological approach. It relied on anthropological methods of data collection from twenty never-married women over the age of thirty-five years. Findings revealed that respondents in this study acknowledged their latent desire to be married and having fulfilled lives, however, owing to some tragic socio-familial circumstances, such as financial constraints, the death of father and the responsibility to look after widowed mother and younger siblings, caste-based endogamy, lack of physical attractiveness, failure to find a compatible spouse, were identified as some of the contributory. Regardless of whether the causes for their single status were circumstantial or optional, unmarried women experience criticism, disgrace, loneliness, and feeling of being left out in a patriarchal societal setup where traditional gender role expectations bound women with marriage and motherhood.</p> Dr Aneela Sultana, Ms Mehwish Zeeshan, Mr Farooq Ahmed Copyright (c) 1970 Aneela Sultana, Farooq Ahmed, Mehwish Zeeshan Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Impact Of Facebook Usage On Female University Students Of Pakistan: A Case Of Sexting And Harassment <p>This research study attempts to identify and understand the impact of social media, specifically Facebook on university female students living in Pakistan. In-depth interviews have been conducted with 20 female Facebook user of university students to knows the impact. The findings show that Cyberbullying and sexual harassment prevailing online and involves in different activities like; sexting, stalking, blackmailing, abusive &amp; immoral conversation and forceful friendships with fake identities that has a serious influence on female students. Pakistani women are often easy victims of such crimes and there suffering goes unreported. They tend to hide it from society in order to guard their reputation. The study recommends strict punishments for such criminals in order to ensure security for women. </p> Dr Ghulam Shabir, Ms Noor ul Ain Nasir, Dr Tanveer Hussain Copyright (c) 1970 tanveer hussain, Ghulam shabir, Noor Ul Ain Nasir Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Gender Base Analysis Of Learners’ Perception Of Online Education In The Context Of Covid-19 <p>The Covid-19 hit has affected the education system of Pakistan in numerous ways; one of them is a sudden transition from traditional classroom education to online learning. Considering social-distancing as the only solution to fight against Covid- 19, the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan advised universities to switch to online teaching. Since this transition is a sudden and recent phenomenon, therefore, the current study attempts to explore learners’ perception of online education specifically in the context of covid-19. The present study also attempts to examine the differences between male and female students’ perception of this new mode of instruction. This research takes up this task by utilizing a qualitative method approach. The data is collected through focus group discussions, interviews and mind maps. The data collected from focus groups and interviews are analyzed qualitatively by using interpretivist paradigm. Moreover, the results of mind maps are used for triangulating the findings of the qualitative data. The study further explored that there is a significant difference between male and female perceptions of online learning. Male students are more positive towards online learning as compared to female students. However, there are some commonalities between all the students as well. Furthermore, the majority of the students accepted online learning because of the pandemic across the globe. </p> Ms Mehwish Haider, Ms Alyia Yasmin Copyright (c) 2021 Alyia yasmin, Mehwish Haider Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Influence Of Perceived Teacher Acceptance-Rejection On Study Habits And Achievement Of School Students <p>This study was conducted to analyze the impact of teacher acceptance or rejection on the study habits and academic achievement of school students. The sample of two hundred students of the tenth class was recruited from the Government schools of Hyderabad city. The age of the participants was 15-17 years. Data were collected after taking permission from the school administration and parents. Study habits inventory (SHAI) and teacher acceptance-rejection scale (TARQ) was administered to the participants. It was assumed that perceived teacher acceptance-rejection would be correlated significantly with the study habits of the participants. Further assumed that low academic achievers would score higher on teacher aggression, neglect and rejection as compared to high academic achievers. Gender differences in the perceived teacher acceptance-rejection were also assumed. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between teacher aggression, neglect, rejection and study habits of the students. Low academic achievers perceived teachers as more neglected and aggressive as compared to high achievers. High academic achievers perceived more teacher warmth and less neglect than low achievers. Gender differences also found in terms of teacher acceptance-rejection, female school students perceived more teacher’s warmth, whereas boys perceived teachers as more controlling than the girls. These findings are helpful to understand the importance of the role of the teacher during schooling specifically. The implication of the findings pointed out the importance of teacher training at the school level especially to make them better able to build a strong and positive relationship with students because it, in turn, influences the study attitudes and achievement level of students. </p> Dr. Muniza Malik , Dr. Ameer Ali Buriro, Dr. Zohra Khatoon Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Muniza Malik , Dr. Ameer Ali Buriro, Dr. Zohra Khatoon Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Gender Differences In ‘Child’s Dislike For Schooling And Studies’ As A Cause Of School Dropout In Sindh, Pakistan <p>This research study explores the child’s dislike for school and studies as a potential cause for school dropout in Sindh. The paper focuses on the gender-based differences among male and female school dropout children of Sindh about their personal dislike for school and studies being the self-reported reason for their school dropout. The survey with the help of a closed-ended questionnaire was done with male and female school dropout children from various districts across Sindh. A three-item scale developed on 5 point Likert scale response categories is used for the purpose of collecting data on children’s dislike for schooling and studies as the reason for leaving school early. The total number of cases included in this research is 5641 school dropout children from Sindh. It includes 4032 boys and 1609 girls. The data were statistically analyzed and presented in the forms of tables. The results of data analysis show that there is a statistically significant difference among male and female school dropout children on their dislike for schooling and studies as being the reason for their school dropout. The results of the study show that more boys leave school due to their dislike for school and studies as compared to girls in the province of Sindh.</p> Dr Naima Tabassum, Ms Huma Tabassum Copyright (c) 2021 Dr Naima Tabassum, Ms Huma Tabassum Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Explaining Gender Segregation In Legislative Committees: A Case Of Punjab Assembly (2013-2018) <p>Legislative committees have the power to take decisions and influence key matters in Legislatures. Women’s descriptive representation is measured through their appointment in various including power/ masculine and low status/feminine committees. This study examines the gender gaps both vertical and horizontal in various parliamentary committees of the Punjab Assembly. The Punjab Assembly has been taken as a case because it is the largest Provincial assembly of Pakistan. The committee system has been taken as a unit of analysis from 2013 to 2018, in order to examine the women’s appointment as heads (horizontal) and member (vertical) in committees. The findings show that the committee allocations are gender-biased; women are over-represented in feminine and low prestigious committees, while under-represented in masculine and power committees. This study suggests, political parties may develop a gender-neutral mechanism for committee allocations.</p> Nayab Javed, Dr Ra'ana Malik Copyright (c) 1970 Nayab Javed, Ra'ana Malik Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Representation Of The Feminist Perspectives In Pakistan’s Political Science Academia <p>The feminist perspectives entered the field of Political Science/ International Relations during the 1980s as part of the larger critical turn in Social Sciences. The marginalization of women’s role and voices in mainstream academic discourse of war and peace remained a key concern of the Political Science/IR feminist perspectives. The current study uses insights from Sandra Harding’s standpoint theory to explore how the feminist perspectives are represented in the Political Science/International Relations academia of Pakistan. This paper undertakes a systematic review of leading (HEC recognized) journals of IR and Political Science in Pakistan, to examine if and how the feminist perspectives is represented in Pakistani International Relations discourse. Since local academic discourses are underrepresented in the largely Eurocentric discipline of Political Science/IR, this study will contribute towards a better understanding of representation on a key critical academic perspective ( Feminism) in Political Science/IR. The results of the study show that feminist perspectives are marginalized in local academia in terms of representation. Serious efforts are required to promote academic research and development in this field with the support of the Government, academic institutions and researchers. </p> Rabia Akram, Dr Fatima Sajjad Copyright (c) 2021 Rabia Akram, Dr Fatima Sajjad Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0000