Women's Work-life Balance Experiences, Challenges & Coping Strategies During COVID-19 within the Pakistani Context

Authors

  • Nayab Javed Department of Gender Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore
  • Asma Seemi Malik Department of Sociology, Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
  • Faseha Khalid Departmrnt of Gender & Development Studies ___Lahore College for Women University, Lahore

Keywords:

Work-Life Balance , Workplace , Pandemic , Employees , Experiences , Maternal Policies

Abstract

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the Pakistani economy worldwide. This research was purposed to explore experiences, challenging factors, and coping strategies of female employees' work-life balance during a pandemic. For this research qualitative research design was used. To gather information Interviews were conducted. The semi-structured interview protocol was used for conducting interviews. Four participants were selected through purposive sampling. Participants were selected from the public and private sectors of education sectors and multinational companies. Transcribed interviews were analyzed by thematic analysis. The study findings showed that participants faced social mobility restrictions during a pandemic and those females who got family support faced a lack of children interruption while working. The workload on females increased both in personal and professional life. Moreover, employees had to learn new skills to continue their work from home for example teachers learned different software to deliver lectures. Initially, they faced many issues like technology-related issues, irresponsible behavior of students, and lack of maternal policies. This study would help understand issues faced by female employees to maintain work-life balance so that in the future if the situation is processed or continues then organizations can help their employees by giving them better maternal policies and devise strategies to minimize household burden on the employees.

References

Allen, T.D. (2001). Family-Supportive Work Environments: The Role of Organizational Perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58(3), pp.414-435. https://doi.org/ 10.1006/jvbe.2000.1774.

Alqahtani, Tahani H. (2020). "Work-Life Balance of Women Employees". Granite Journal: a Postgraduate Interdisciplinary Journal, 4(1), pp.37- 42.

Asgary, A., Ozdemir, A. I., & Özyürek, H. (2020). Small and Medium Enterprises and Global Risks: Evidence from Manufacturing SMEs in Turkey. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science, 11(1), pp.59–73.

Barbieri T. Basso G., & Scicchitano S. (2021). Italian Workers at Risk During the COVID-19 Epidemic. Italian Economic Journal, pp.175–195. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40797-021-00164-1.

Begum, A., Shafaghi, M., & Adeel, A. (2022). Impact of Job Insecurity on Work–Life Balance during COVID-19 in India. https://doi.org/10.1177/09722629211073278.

Boeri, T., Caiumi, A., & Paccagnella, M. (2020). Mitigating the Work-Safety Trade-Off. COVID Economics: Vetted and Real-Time Papers, 2 (8.4.), pp. 60-66.

Claudiu, George Bocean, Popescu, L., Anca, Antoaneta Vărzaru, Costin, Daniel Avram, & Iancu, A. (2023). Work–Life Balance and Employee Satisfaction during COVID-19 Pandemic. Sustainability, 15(15), pp.11631–11631. https://doi.org/10.3390/su151511631.

Bonacini, L., Gallo, G., & Scicchitano, S. (2021). Working from Home and Income Inequality: Risks of A New Normal with COVID-19. Journal of Population Economics, 34(1), pp.303-360.

Bu, F., Steptoe, A., Wan Mak, H., & Fancourt, D. (2021). Time-Use and Mental Health During The COVID-19 Pandemic: Apanel Analysis of 55,204 Adults Followed Across 11 Weeks of Lockdown in The UK. Medrxiv Preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.18.20177345.

Bukowska, U., Tyranska, M., & Wisniewska, S. (2021). The Workplace and Work-Life Balance during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Urszula, B., Małgorzata, T., & Sylwia, W. (2021). The Workplace and Work-Life Balance During The COVID-19 Pandemic. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Sectio H Oeconomia, 55(2), pp.19–32. https://doi.org/10.17951/h.2021.55.2.19-32.

Crossman, Ashley. (August 27, 2020). Understanding Purposive Sampling. https://www.thoughtco.com/purposive-sampling-3026727.

Denzin, N.K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2003). The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues (2nd edn.). Sage Publications.

Eggers, F. (2020). Masters of Disasters? Challenges and Opportunities for SMEs in Times of Crisis. Journal of Business Research, 116, pp.199–208.

Fana, M., Milasi, S., Napierala, J., Fernandez-Macias, E., & Gonzalez Vazquez, I. (2020). Telework, Work Organization and Job Quality During The COVID-19 Crisis. A Qualitative Study. JRC Working Papers Series On Labor, Education and Technology.

Given, L. M. (2008). Semi-Structured Interview. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. https://doi.10.4135/9781412963909.

Gupta, S. (2016). A Study On Work Life Balance of Married Women Employees Teaching In Technical Institutions Of Moradabad Region. International Research Journal of Management Sociology& Humanity, 7(12), pp.2277-9809.

Greenhaus, J. H., Collins, K. M., & Shaw, J. D. (2003). The Relation Between Work-Life Balance and Quality of Life. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63(3), pp.510–531. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(02)00042-8.

Kaushik, M., & Guleria, N. (2020). The Impact of Pandemic COVID -19 in Workplace. European Journal of Business and Management, 12(15), pp.1–10. https://doi.org/10.7176/ejbm/12-15-02.

Konrad, A. M., & Mangel, R. (2000). The Impact of work-life programs on Firm Productivity. Strategic Management Journal, 21(12), pp.1225–1237. https://doi.org/10.1002/1097-0266(200012)21:12%3C1225::aid-smj135%3E3.0.c o;2-3.

Marra, M. (2014). Informal Work and Social Expenditure in Italy: How to Exit Poverty Traps?. Political Sociali/Social Policies, 1, pp.41-64. https://doi.org/10.7389/76574.

McNall, L.A., Nicklin, J.M., & Masuda, A.D. (2010). A Meta-Analytic Review of The Consequences Associated With Work-Family Enrichment. Journal of business and psychology, 25(3), pp.381-396. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-009-9141-1.

Palumbo, R. (2020). Let Me Go to The Office! An Investigation into The Side Effects of Working from Home On Work-Life Balance. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 33(6/7), pp.771-790. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJPSM-06-2020-0150.

Patel, D. (2018). Bringing Work-Life Balance to Extension. Journal of Human Sciences and Extension, 6(3), pp.232-247. https://doi.org/10.54718/DTXK7521.

Prasad, S., Su, H. -C., Altay, N., & Tata, J. (2015). Building Disaster-Resilient Micro Enterprises in the Developing World. Disasters, 39(3), pp.447–466.

Samantha, G. (2018). The Impact of Natural Disasters on Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs): A Case Study on 2016 Flood Event in Western Sri Lanka. Procedia Engineering, 212, pp.744–751.

Schieman, S., Badawy, P. J., A. Milkie, M., & Bierman, A. (2021). Work-Life Conflict during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World, 7, pp.1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023120982856.

Shukla, S. (2016). A Study On Work Life Balance on Selected Working Women in Urban Satna. International Journal Of Science Technology And Management, 5(4), pp. 2396-1537.

Smeltzer, S.C., Cantrell, M.A., Sharts-Hopko, N.C., Heverly, M.A., Jenkinson, A., & Nthenge, S. (2016). Psychometric Analysis of the Work/Life Balance Self –Assessment Scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 24(1), pp.5-15.

Sostero, M., Milasi, S., Hurley, J., Fernandez-Macias, E., & Bisello, M. (2020). Tele-Workability and The Covid-19 Crisis; A New Digital Divide?. JRC Working Papers Series On Labor, Education and Technology.

Sundler, A. J., Lindberg, E., Nilsson, C., & Palmér, L. (2019). Qualitative Thematic Analysis Based on Descriptive Phenomenology. Nursing Open, 6(3), pp.733–739. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/nop2.275.

Thomas, L., & Ganster, D.C. (1995). Impact of Family-Supportive Work Variables on Work-Family Conflict and Strain: A Control Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(1), pp.6-15. http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.1.6.

Uddin, M. (2021). Addressing Work Life Balance Challenges Of Working Women During COVID-19 In Bangladesh. International Social Science Journal, 7(20) pp.239-240.

UN Report (2020). The First 100 Days of the COVID-19 Outbreak in Asia and the Pacific: A Gender lens. UN.

Van Ginkel, J. R., Linting, M., Rippe, R. C. A., & van der Voort, A. (2019). Rebutting Existing Misconceptions About Multiple Imputation as a Method for Handling Missing Data. Journal of Personality Assessment, 102(3), pp.297–308. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2018.1530680.

Wang, B., Liu, Y., Qian, J., & Parker, S.K. (2020). Achieving Effective Remote Working During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Work Design Perspective. Applied Psychology, 70 (1), pp.16-59.

Downloads

Published

2024-03-08

How to Cite

Javed, N. ., Seemi Malik, A., & Khalid , F. (2024). Women’s Work-life Balance Experiences, Challenges & Coping Strategies During COVID-19 within the Pakistani Context. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 24(1), 177–194. Retrieved from https://socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/732

Issue

Section

Articles