Navigating through Covid19- Mothers’ Leadership As Catalyst For Sustainable Development Of the Youth Of Pakistan
Keywords:Emotional and Psychological Needs, Sustainable Development
Sustainable development and its significance to our future generations is not new to anyone. However, the bay between the knowledge and implementation is yet to be bridged.Covid-19 and its aftermaths are leaving their visible marks on almost all spheres of economy, consequently, the restrictive measures put by the government led to abrupt school closures and absence of social life and called for additional contribution of parents. WHO, UNDP and other global bodies’ reports on the aftermaths of pandemic highlighting the need to meet the emotional and psychological needs of the young children. The situation has intensified the parents’ role in general and mothers in particular, we hypothesize that mothers if use their emotional intelligence can help developing a sustainable youth. The sensitivity and the relative importance led us to use a mixed research design as endorsed by Tashakkori & Teddlie (1998), Greene (2007) and Dorneyi, (2007) who call it “multiple ways of seeing and hearing” (p. 20). This mixed design helped in unearthing the deep-set concepts in the minds of research subjects. Results showed a significant relationship between mother’s EI, and child cognitive development in the form of better interpersonal behaviour and better academic results. Mothers with high EI reported a better relationship with the respective children. In conclusion, these findings support the notion that a mother’s EI could have a significant impact on a child’s cognitive development ultimately leading to a need for future research focusing on Mothers’ EI as a tool for the sustainable development of the youth of Pakistan.
Alina TurculeĠ, Cristina Tulbureb (2014). The Relation between the Emotional Intelligence of Parents and Children”, Science Direct CIEA.
Alderman et al. (2010). Change in Parental Influence on Children’s Physical Activity Over Time. J Phys Act Health, vol.7:1, pp.60–7.
Abdullahi (2018). Parameters of Cognitive Functions for Measuring Mental Health: Application of 17 CANTAB Tests Results Statistical Variances Analyses in Forensic Psychology and Correctional Psychiatry. Project Log: Nigeria Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Law, Research Gate Publication.
Asghari & Besharat (2011). The Relation of Perceived Parenting with Emotional Intelligence. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol.30, pp.231-235.
Brand R, Ekkekakis P. (2018). Affective–Reflective Theory of Physical Inactivity and Exercise: Foundations and Preliminary Evidence. Ger J Exerc Sport Res., vol.48:1, pp.48-58.
Aminabadi (2012). The Impact of Maternal Emotional Intelligence and Parenting Style on Child Anxiety and Behavior in the Dental Setting. PMCV., vol.17:6, NCBI.
Cambridge Cognition. CANTAB Brain Health. [Online].; 2018 [cited 2018 October 15. Available from: www.cambridgecognition.com, Cambridge Cognition Ltd. Bottisham, UK.
Chinazzi et al. (2020). The Effect of Travel Restrictions on the Spread of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak. Science, vol.368, pp.395-400. sciencemag.org/content/368/6489/395/suppl/DC1Material and Methods.
Clark, H., Coll-Seck AM, Banerjee A. (2020). A Future for the World's Children? A WHO-UNICEF-Lancet Commission. Lancet, vol.395, pp.605–658.
Cluver, L., Meinck, F. & Steinert, J. Parenting for Lifelong Health: a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial of a non-commercialised parenting programme for adolescents and their families in South Africa. BMJ Global Health.
Darling N, Steinberg L. (1993). Parenting Style as Context: An Integrative Model. Psychological Bulletin, vol.113, p.487.
Duncombe ME, Havighurst SS, Holland KA, et al. (2012). The Contribution of Parenting Practices and Parent Emotion Factors in Children at Risk for Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, vol.43, pp.715-733.
Estrada et al. (2021). Does Emotional Intelligence Influence Academic Performance? The Role of Compassion and Engagement in Education for Sustainable Development, Sustainability 2021, vol.13:4, pp.1721; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13041721
Ewing et al. (2019). Understanding of Emotions and Empathy: Predictors of Positive Parenting with Preschoolers in Economically Stressed Families. Journal of Child and Family Studies, vol.28:2, DOI:10.1007/s10826-018-01303-6.
Fern‡ndez-Berrocal P. et al. (2020). Emotional Intelligence and Mental Health in the Family: The Influence of Emotional Intelligence Perceived by Parents and Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol.17, p.6255.
Garriguet et al. (2017). Parent-Child Association in Physical Activity and Sedentary behaviour. Health Rep., 28:6, pp.3–11, National Library of Medicine, NCBI.
Geven, Koen; Hasan, Amer. (2020). Learning Losses in Pakistan Due to COVID-19 School Closures: A Technical Note on Simulation Results. World Bank, Washington, DC. © World Bank. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/ 10986/34659 License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
Goleman D. (2001). An EI-Based Theory of Performance. The Emotionally Intelligent Workplace: How to Select for, Measure and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups and Organizations Archives, https://psycnet.apa.org/record/ 2018-45582-009.
González et al. (2021). Parents’ Emotional Intelligence and their Children’s Mental Health: A Systematic Review” Fortune Journal
Havighurst SS et al. (2015). Tuning in to Teens: Improving Parental Responses to Anger and Reducing Youth Externalizing behavior Problems. Journal of Adolescence, vol.42, pp.148-158.
Ana Gregl. et al. (2014). Emotional Competence of Mothers and Psychopathology in Preschool Children with Specific Language Impairment. (SLI). Psychiatria Danubina 260-270. PMID: 25191774
Lopez et al. (2019). Within-Subject Associations of Maternal Physical Activity Parenting Practices on Children’s Objectively Measured Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity. J Pediatr Psychol., vol.44:3, pp.300–10.
Martins, Ramalho y Morin, Martins A, et al. (2010). A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Health. Personality and Individual Differences, vol.49, pp.554Ð564.
Mayer, J.D. & Salovey P. (1997). What is Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications. UNH Scholars’ Repository, https://scholars.unh.edu
Moore, et al. (2018). Roles of Mothers and Fathers in Supporting Child Physical Activity: a Cross-Sectional Mixed-Methods Study, BMJ Open, vol.8:1, p.e019732.
Rabea Malik (2020). Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan Education System in the Covid-19 Response, UKFIET- The Education & Development Forum, https://ukfiet.org
Rothe D, Gallinetti J, Lagaay M, Campbell L. Plan International; Monrovia, Liberia: 2015. Ebola: beyond the health emergency. [Google Scholar]
Turcule A, Tulbure C. (2014). The relation between the emotional intelligence of parents and c, hildren. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 142: 592-596.
Pakistan Human Development Report, UNDP Report 2019 “Beyond income, beyond averages, beyond today: Inequalities in human development in the 21st century”
UNICEF (2020). Pakistan: Technology Boosts Education Reforms in Remote Areas, Stories of Change, GPE, Coordinating Agency Islamabad. http://www.globalpartnership.org
Vally, Z., Murray, L., Tomlinson, M. & Cooper, PJ. (2015). The Impact of Dialogic Book-Sharing Training on Infant Language and Attention: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Deprived South African Community. J Child Psychol Psychiatr, vol.56, pp.865–873.
Ward, CL., Wessels, IM. & Lachman, JM. (2020). Parenting for Lifelong Health for Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parenting Program in South Africa to Prevent Harsh Parenting and Child Conduct Problems. J Child Psychol Psychiatry, vol.61, pp.503–512.
Wen et al. (2018). Relationships among Affective States, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior in Children: Moderation by Perceived Stress. Health Psychol, vol.37:10, pp.904–14.
World Bank’s EdTech Team (2021). Thinking Inside the ‘Box’: Pakistan Turns to Education TV During Covid-19, World Bank Report, IBRD.
Yang et al. (2020). Mother-Child Dyadic Influences of Affect on Everyday Movement Behaviors: Evidence from an Ecological Momentary Assessment Study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 17:56 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00951-6
WHO's Information on Parenting in the Time of COVID-19 see https://www.who.int/ emergencies/diseases/novelcoronavirus-2019/advice-forpublic/healthy-parenting
UNO General Assembly Economic and Social Council’s Follow-up to the tenth anniversary of the International Year of the Family and beyond Report of the Secretary-General, https://undocs.org/A/66/62
UNICEF's Tips for Parenting during the COVID-19 Outbreak see https://www.unicef.org/coronavirus/covid-19-parentingtips
Parenting for Lifelong Health's COVID-19 Resources see https://www.covid19 parenting.com/
CDC's Guidance for Schools see https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/schools-childcare/guidance-for-schools.html
UN (2010). General Assembly Economic and Social Council, https://undocs.org/A/66/62
Stangor, Charles. (2015). Introduction to Psychology. Place of publication not identified: publisher not identified. https://openpress.usask.ca/introductiontopsychology/ chapter/chapter-12-introduction/
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Ms Seema Khalid, Dr Khalid Mahmood Iraqi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.