From 24/7 To 9-5: The Co-Optation And Indigenization1 Of Feminism By Women Rights NGOS In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors

  • Aisha Alam Department of Gender Studies, University of Peshawar
  • Dr. Noor Sanauddin Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Peshawar

Keywords:

Women’s Rights Movement, Women NGOs, Feminism, Feminist Activism

Abstract

The study explores the nature and form of the contemporary women's rights movement utilizing a contextual understanding of feminist activities accentuated by selected women NGOs. The thematic working areas of these organizations were aimed to gauge the status of women in the region to see how coherent and impactful the women’s movement is to achieve its goals in the presence and pressure of government and donor policies. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 participants working in Peshawar-based women/feminist NGOs using the purposive sampling technique. Herbert Blummer's theoretical model of stages of social movements was used to validate the findings. The study findings revealed that the contemporary women's rights movement in the region of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) is diverse, fragmented and its existence is dependent on the efforts made by individuals and organizations. Furthermore, the women's rights struggle has been NGOized because NGOs are donors dependent for their activities, and volunteerism became a rare virtue as feminism is commercialized and carried out mostly for social media stories and for attacking more funding for the NGOs. Street activism which used to be the backbone of the Pakistani women’s movement has now changed into paid activism. In short, the definition of the contemporary women's rights movement is different from the water-tight definition discussed in the textbooks. It is rudimentary that may potentially be evolved into a vibrant and organized movement subject to favorable circumstances.

References

Ali, S. S. (2000). Law, Islam and the women’s movement in Pakistan. In International Perspectives on Gender and Democratization. Palgrave Macmillan,

Alvarez, S. E. (1999). Advocating Feminism: The Latin American Feminist NGO 'boom'. International feminist Journal of Politics, 1(2), 181-209.

Bari, F. (2010). Gendered Perceptions and Impact of Terrorism--Talibanization in Pakistan. Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung.

Batool, S., Batool, F., Zia, A., & Saeed, R. (2018). The struggle for women rights: A study of emergence of feminism in Pakistan,(1947 to 2010). Journal of the Punjab University Historical Society, 31(1).

Bernal, V. & Grewal, I. (Eds.). (2014). Theorizing NGOs: States, Feminisms, and Neoliberalism. Duke University Press.

Bhandari, M. (2014). Civil society and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) movements in Nepal in terms of social transformation. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 15(1), 177-189.

Blumer, H. (1969). Collective Behavior. In Lee A.M., (Ed.), Principles of sociology (3rd ed.) Barnes and Noble Books

Brohi, N. (2006). The MMA Offensive: Three Years in Power, 2003-2005. Action Aid International.

Chakravarti, U. (2015). How autonomous is the autonomous women’s movement? Some thoughts for consideration, unpublished paper.

Chen, M.A. (1995). Engendering World Conferences: The International Women’s Movement and United Nations. Third World Quarterly, 16(3), 477-493.

Chimiak, G. (2014). The rise and stall of non-governmental organizations in development. Polish Sociological Review, 185(1), 25-44.

Clarke, G. (1998). Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and Politics in the Developing World. Political Studies, 46(1), 36–52.

Evans, J. (1998). Introduction. In Feminist theory today: An introduction to second-wave feminism. SAGE Publications Ltd.

Friedman, E. J. (2003). Gendering the agenda: The impact of the transnational women's rights movement at the UN conferences of the 1990s. In Women's studies international forum. 26 (4). 313-331.

Haider, S. K. U. (2011). Genesis and growth of the NGOs: Issues in Bangladesh perspective. International NGO Journal, 6(11), 240-247.

Hannam, J. (2007). Feminism: A Short History of a Big Idea. Pearson Educated Limited.

Imran, R. (2005). Legal injustices: The Zina Hudood Ordinance of Pakistan and its implications for women. Journal of International Women's Studies, 7(2), 78-100.

Ivanescu, C. (2010). Politicised religion and the religionisation of politics. Culture and Religion, 11(4), 309-325.

Jafar, A. (2007). Engaging fundamentalism: The case of women's NGOs in Pakistan. Social Problems, 54(3), 256-273.

Jafar, A. (2016). Women’s NGOs in Pakistan. Palgrave McMillan.

Jaggar, A. M., & Rothenberg, P. S. (1993). Feminist Frameworks Alternative Theoretical Accounts of the Relations Between Women and Men (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Jalal, A. (1991). The convenience of subservience: Women and the state of Pakistan. In Women, Islam and the state. Palgrave Macmillan.

Khan, A. (2015). Human Rights For Women Or The Human Rights Of Women?: Pakistan, CEDAW And The Gatekeepers. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 10.

Khan, A. (2018). The women's movement in Pakistan: activism, Islam and democracy. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Khan, A. (2021) 'Supporting Women’s Empowerment in Pakistan: Lessons for Donors', IDS Policy Briefing 172, Institute of Development Studies

Khan, J. (2014). The Rise of Political Islam in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: The Case of Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal (MMA). Dialogue (Pakistan), 9(3).

Lang, S. (1997). The NGOization of Feminism: Institutionalization and Institution Building within the German Women’s Movement. In Scott, J.W., Kaplan, C. & Keates, D. (Eds.), Transition, Environments, Translation: Feminism in International Politics (101-120). Routledge.

Martin, B. (2007). Activism, Social and Political. In Anderson, G. L. & Herr, K. G. Encyclopedia of Activism and Social Justice. Sage Publications.

Mirza, N. (2011). Seven pro-women laws in seven years. Legislative Watch, 38(2).

Mohiuddin (2002). An Introduction to the Non-profit Sector in Bangladesh, BFF; Allvida.

Mumtaz, K., & Shaheed, F. (1987). Women of Pakistan: Two Steps Forward, One Step Back?. Zed Books Ltd.

Offen, K. (1988). Defining Feminism: A Comparative Historical Approach. Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 14(1), 119-157.

Osborne, S. (2001). Feminism. Pocket Essentials. Harpenden.

Pietilä, H. & Peoc'h, B. (2007). The unfinished story of women and the United Nations. UN.

Pilcher, J. & Whelehan, I. (2016). Key concepts in gender studies. India, Sage Publixations.

Qadri, S. & Umer, N. (2015). Women Empowerment and Political Democratization in Pakistan with reference to General Parvez Musharraf Regime. Public Policy and Administration Research, 5(10).

Roy, S. (2015). The Indian Women’s Movement. Journal of South Asian Development, 10(1), 96–117.

Saigol, R. (2016). Feminism and Women’s Movements in Pakistan: Actors, Debates and Strategies. Friedrich-Ebert Stiftung.

Saigol, R., & Chaudhary, N. U. (2020). Contradictions and Ambiguities of Feminism in Pakistan. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung.

Shaheed, F. (2011). Women Experiences of Identity, Religion and Activism in Pakistan. In Jeffery, P., & Basu, A. (Eds.), Resisting the sacred and the secular: Women's activism and politicized religion in South Asia. Kali for Women.

Siddique, M. H. & Ahmad, M. M. (2012). Variables affecting fieldworkers of NGOs in Pakistan. Development in Practice, 22(2), 216-228.

Sobhan R, Bhattacharya D (1990). Donors Perspective and Influence on Domestic Economic Policy, In Rehman S (ed) (1990), From Aid Dependence to Self-Reliance : Development Options for Bangladesh, Dhaka, BIDS.

Stienstra, D. (2000). Dancing Resistance from Rio to Beijing: Transnational Women’s Organizing and United Nations Conferences 1992–6’. In Marchand, M. H., & Runyan, A. S. (Eds.), Gender and Global Restructuring: Sightings, Sites and Resistances. Routledge.

Snyder, R. C. (2008). What is third-wave feminism? A new directions essay. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 34(1), 175-196.

Tong, R. (2018). Feminist thought, student economy edition: A More Comprehensive Introduction. Routledge.

UN Women. (2018). A Brief History of CSW. Retrieved from http://www.unwomen.o rg/en/csw/brief-history

Weiss, A. M. (2003). Interpreting Islam and women's rights: Implementing CEDAW in Pakistan. International Sociology, 18(3), 581-601.

West, L. A. (1999). The United Nations women’s conferences and feminist politics. Gender politics in global governance, 177, 196.

Yousaf, F. (2019). Pakistan’s “tribal” Pashtuns, their “violent” representation, and the Pashtun Tahafuz movement. Sage Open, 9(1).

Zia, A. S. (2009). Faith-based Politics, Enlightened Moderation and the Pakistani Women's Movement. Journal of International Women's Studies, 11(1), 225-245.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-07

How to Cite

Alam, A., & Sanauddin , N. . (2021). From 24/7 To 9-5: The Co-Optation And Indigenization1 Of Feminism By Women Rights NGOS In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 21(2), 1–22. Retrieved from https://socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/562

Issue

Section

Articles