Women’s Political Participation In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Local Governance 2015: Challenges And Opportunities
Keywords:Women, Political Participation, Local Governance, Challenges, Opportunities, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Women’s political participation is one of the fundamental human rights worldwide. According to feminist perspective in Pakistan political sphere is attached with masculinity while femininity is confined to private sphere. The present research study mainly focused to address the socio-cultural barriers to women political participation. The study was conducted in two tehsil namely Takhat Bahi and Katlang of District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Researcher used quantitative research design and data was collected from 285 elected local leaders with simple random sampling technique. Among the total respondents 100 women elected members and 185 men elected members were selected. Researcher collected directly data from men elected members through interview schedule while women research assistant collected data from women elected members. Statistical data was analyzed with the help of SPSS and regression analysis test was applied to draw the results that which factors are greatly influence the women political participation. The statistical results indicated that patriarchal structure of society is significantly influence women low political participation at P-value (.002) and β value is positive (2.632). Similarly, the women subordinate role in social sphere is greatly influence the low political participation at P-value (.015) β value is positive (2.321). The study concluded that women are oppressed due to her gender and their political participation is discouraged due to her gender. It is suggested that government should increase the women quota and make strategic planning and interventions to enhance women political participation.
Abbasi, Z. M. & Razia, M. (2015). Devolution of Powers to Local Governments in Pakistan During Musharraf Regime. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, vol.35:2, pp.891-901.
Abidi, A. (2013). Muslim Women and their Representation in South Asian politics. Islam and Muslim Societies. Social Science Journal, vol.6:2, pp.11-27.
Alam, M. (2013). Pakistan’s Devolution of Power Plan 2001: A brief dawn for local democracy? New Century Local Government: Commonwealth Perspective. London: Common Wealth.
Ali, H., Shah, A. S. & Ali, A. (2016).Community Development Perspective in the Local Government System of District Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Global Regional Review, vol.1:1, pp.132-140.
Bano, S. (2009).Women in parliament in Pakistan: Problems and potential solutions. Women's Studies Journal, vol.23:1, pp.19-35.
Bhattacharya, S. (2014).Status of women in Pakistan." Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 51(1),179-211.
Bilal, M., Ashfaq U. Rehman, U.A. & Ahmad, A. (2018). Political reforms and women political participation in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Liberal Arts and Social Sciences International Journal, 2(2), 67-79.
Borchorst, A. & Siim, B. (2008).Woman-friendly policies and state feminism: Theorizing Scandinavian gender equality." Feminist theory, 9(2), 207-224.
Bose, M. (2007).Women's home-centred work in India: The gendered politics of space." International Development Planning Review, 29(3), 271-298.
Carastathis, A. (2014). "The concept of intersectionality in feminist theory." Philosophy Compass, 9(5), 304-314.
Cheema, A., Khwaja,I. A., & Adnan, Q. (2006). Local government reforms in Pakistan: context, content and causes. A comparative perspective, 25(2), 257-284.
Choudhary, R. (2018). Issues and challenges of women participation in politics. National Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development, 3 (1), 344-346.
Cornwall, A., & Anne, M. (2005).Democratizing democracy: Feminist perspectives. Democratisation, 12(5), 783-800.
Dotson, K. (2015). Inheriting Patricia Hill Collins's black feminist epistemology." Ethnic and Racial studies, 38(13), 2322-2328.
Esquivel, V. (2016).Power and the sustainable development goals: A feminist analysis. Gender & Development, 24(1), 9-23.
Finkel, S. E. (2002). Civic education and the mobilization of political participation in developing democracies. Journal of Politics, 64(4), 994-1020.
Hadi, A. (2017). Patriarchy and gender-based violence in Pakistan." European Journal of Social Science Education and Research, 4(4), 297-304.
Hood-Williams, J. (2001). Gender, masculinities and crime: From structures to psyches." Theoretical Criminology, 5(1), 37-60.
Hughes, M. M. (2011). Intersectionality, quotas, and minority women's political representation worldwide. American Political Science Review, 105(3), 604-620.
Huq, S. M. S. (2016). Women’s participation in local Government: a tool for sustainable development of Bangladesh. European Journal of Business and Social Sciences, 4(11), 169-183.
Husain, I. (2009). The role of politics in Pakistan's Economy. Journal of International Affairs, 63(1),1-18.
Jabeen, N., & Jadoon, I. Z. M. (2010)."Gender and local governance in Pakistan: Promoting participation through capacity building." South Asian Studies 25(2), 255-281.
Jejeebhoy, S. J. & Zeba A. Sathar, A.Z. (2004).Women's autonomy in India and Pakistan: the influence of religion and region. Population and development review, 27(4), 687-712.
Kassa, S. (2015).Challenges and opportunities of women political participation in Ethiopia. Journal of Global economics, 3(4), 1-7.
Keefer, P. A. N., & Vishwanath, T. (2003) "The political economy of decentralization in Pakistan." Development Research Group, World Bank, Washington, DC Processed Retrieved from https://Tara_Vishwanath/publication/256164667_The_ Political_Economy_of_Decentralzation_in_Pakistan/links/0deec539f94979e242000000.pdf.
Khan, M. R., & Ara, F. (2006).Women, participation and empowerment in local government: Bangladesh union Parishad perspective. Asian Affairs, 29(1),73-92.
Khattak, S.Gul. (2010). Women in local government: The Pakistan experience. IDS Bulletin, 41(5), 52-61.
Khattak, S.S.G., & Hussain, A. (2013).Women Representation in Pakistani Legislatures: A Study of 2002, 2008 and 2013 General Elections." South Asian Survey, 20(2), 191-205.
Krook, M. L., & O'Brien, Z.D.(2010).The politics of group representation: Quotas for women and minorities worldwide. Comparative Politics, 42(3),253-272. doi.org/10.5129/001041510X12911363509639.
Krook, M. L. (2006). Gender quotas, norms, and politics." Politics & Gender, 2(1), 110-118.
Latif, A. (2009). A critical analysis of school enrollment and literacy rates of girls and women in Pakistan." Educational Studies, 45(5), 424-439.
Murshid, N. S., & Filomena M. Critelli, M.F.(2020). Empowerment and intimate partner violence in Pakistan: results from a nationally representative survey." Journal of interpersonal violence, 35(4), 854-875.
Nakamura, Y. (2002). Beyond the hijab: Female Muslims and physical activity. Women in Sport and Physical Activity Journal, 11(2), 21-48.
Nasreen, N. N. S., &Gul, S.(2016). "Patriarchal Politics: Factors Limiting Women's Participation in Local Government in Pakistan." Putaj Humanities & Social Sciences, 23(2),73-85.
Naz, A. & Ahmad, W. (2012).Socio-cultural impediments to women political empowerment in Pakhtun society." Academic Research International, 3(1), 163-173.
Naz, A., &Hafeez-ur-Rehman,C. (2012). Developing Gender Equality: An Analytical Study of Socio-Political and Economic Constraints in Women’s Empowerment in Pakhtun Society of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan.Retrieved from hdx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2083014.
Naz, A. (2011). Socio-economic and political obstacles in women's empowerment in Pakhtun Society of District Dir (L), Khyber Pkhtunkhwa, Pakistan." FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 5(1), 51-72.
Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2018, January 3)Block Wise Provisional Summary Results of 6th Population & Housing Census-2017.Islamabad.Retrieved on May 22, 2021 fromhttp://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/block-wise-provisional-summary-results-6th-population-housing-census-2017-
Paxton, P.,&Kunovich, S. (2003). Women's political representation: The importance of ideology." Social forces, 82(1), 87-113.
Sekaran, U. & Roger, B. (2016). Research methods for business: A skill building approach. United Kingdom, UK: John Wiley & Sons Press.
Shah, A. (2012).The 18th Constitutional Amendment: Glue or solvent for nation building and citizenship in Pakistan?The Lahore Journal of Economics, 17, 387-424.
Shami, A. A. (2009). Political empowerment of women in Pakistan." Pakistan Vision, 10(1), 141-150.
Talbot, I. (2002). General Pervez Musharraf: saviour or destroyer of Pakistan's democracy? Contemporary South Asia, 11(3), 311-328.
World Economic Forum.(2020).Global Gender Gap Report 2020.Switzerland, 2019.Retrieved on May 02, 2021 fromhttp://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2020/dataexplorer/.
Yodanis, C. L. (2004). Gender inequality, violence against women, and fear: A cross-national test of the feminist theory of violence against women. Journal of interpersonal violence, 19(6), 655-675.
Zakar, R., Zakar, Z.M., & Kraemer, A. (2013).Men’s beliefs and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women in Pakistan." Violence against women, 19(2),246-268.
Zerai, A. (2011). A Black Feminist Critique of American Christian Antiwar (Dis) engagements. Works and Days, 29(1),241-263.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Hussain Ali, Zatoon Bibi, Dr. Riffat Sardar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.