A Comparative Analysis Of Gender And Old Age Problems In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

Authors

  • Hamid Alam Department of Social work, University of Malakand
  • Adnan Khan Department of Sociology, University of Malakand
  • Tahira Jabeen Department of Social Work, University of the Punjab

Keywords:

Old Age Pension, Property Inheritance, Informal Sector, Gender discrimination, Poverty

Abstract

The study of old age problems is an emerging field in Pakistan. Old age brings variety of problems for both males and females, however, the nature of the problems of elderly men and women are different. This paper compares and analyses the problems faced by elderly men and women. This research study has been conducted in the semi urban town of Timergara, the head quarter of District Dir Lower, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Data was collected from the respondents aged 60 years and above through in-depth interviews. The respondents were selected using convenient sampling technique. The study finds that because of gender discrimination and cultural factors, women have lower access to health services than men. Consequently health problems of elderly women are more severe than the health problems of elderly men. The study further finds that women at old age are poorer than men due to cultural restrictions on education, women employment, deprivation from property inheritance. Lack of old age pension and widowhood also plays role in poverty of elderly women.

References

Afzal, M. (1997). Population ageing issues in Pakistan: A Further Analysis, Some Problems and Issues of Older Persons in Asia and Pacific. New York: United Nations. ESCAP Asian Population Studies. pp. 44-80.

Afzal, M. (1999) Growing Old in Pakistan: Challenges for the New Millennium; International Year of Older Persons. UNFPA.

Ageing in Place. (2020). Top health conditions affecting elderly women. Available online at: https://www.aginginplace.org/top-health-conditions-affecting-elderly-women/ [Accessed on 2020, May 15]

Ahmad, E., Bibi, A., & Mahmood, T. (2012). Attitudes towards women's rights to inheritance in District Lakki Marwat, Pakistan. The Pakistan Development Review, pp 197-217.

Alam, A., Ibrar, M., & Khan, P. (2016). Socio-Economic and Psychological Problems of the Senior Citizens of Pakistan. Peshawar Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences (PJPBS), 2(2), pp 249-261.

Alam, A. (2012). Women Role and Status in Pukhtoon Society (A Case Study of Village Sufaid Dheri, Peshawar). International Journal of Learning & Development Vol. 2, No. 3, pp 313-324.

Ali, S.M., & Kiani, M.F.K. (2003). Ageing and Poverty in Pakistan (No. 2003: 18). Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.

Arif, U. and Ahmed, E. (2010).Pension System Reforms for Pakistan: Current Situation and Future Prospects, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.

Ashiq, U., & Asad, A. Z. (2017). The rising old age problem in Pakistan. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan–Vol, 54(2).

Bari, F. (2000). Country briefing paper: Women in Pakistan. Asian Development Bank Programs Department (West) & Office of Environment and Social Development.

BBC (2012). Three sons sent to jail for not caring their father [translated from Urdu]. Available At: www.bbc.co.uk/urdu/india/2012/11/121101_three_ sons_jailed_ mb.shtml, retrieved on 06-06-2013.

Behncke, S. (2009).How Does Retirement Affect Health. IZA Discussion Paper No. 4253. Available at: http:// ssrn.com/abstract=1426740

Bhattacharya, S. (2014). Status Of Women In Pakistan. J.R.S.P., Vol. 51, No. 1, pp 179-211 available at (http://pu.edu.pk/images/journal/history/PDF-FILES/7v51 _No1_14.pdf) retrieved on 11-06-2019.

Cheung, F., (13-15 April, 2000). Ageing population and gender issues. Paper presented at the 10th Anniversary conference on “Into the 21st Century: Challenges for Hong Kong and Asia- Pacific region”. The Chinese University of Hong Kong. Available at (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/237303385_Ageing_ Population_and_Gender_Issues; retrieved on 10-06-2019.

Daily Dawn (January 28, 2018). Doctor-population Ratio. available at https://epaper.dawn.com/DetailImage.php?StoryImage=28_01_2018_009_003

Dildar, S., Saeed, Y. & Sharjeela. (2012). Exploratory Study of the Nature of Violence Against Elderly in District Gujrat, Pakistan. Academic Research International. Vol. 2, No. 3. Pp 661-669.

Gao, Z., Chen, Z., Sun, A., & Deng, X. (2019). Gender differences in cardiovascular disease. Medicine in Novel Technology and Devices, 4, 100025.

Government of Pakistan. (2014-15). Pakistan Bureau of statistics, 2014-15.LABOUR FORCE SURVEY 2014-15 Thirty-third issue. Available at http://www.pbs.gov.pk/content/labour-force-survey-2014-15-annual-report

Government of Pakistan. (2016). Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, Pakistan social and living standards measurement survey (2014-15) http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files/pslm/publications/PSLM_2014-15_National-Provincial-District_report.pdf

Help Age International. (n.d). Gender and Ageing Briefs. Available at https://www.helpage.org/silo/files/gender-and-ageing-briefs.pdf retrieved on 06-05-2019.

International Federation on Aging. (2012). Revera Report on Ageism, A Look at Gender Differences.

Kamal, A., and Woodbury, L. (2016). Emerging Opportunities for Women in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Growth Sectors. International Growth Centre, Pakistan Program available at https://www.theigc.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/Kamal-Woodbury-2016-Working-paper.pdf

Kamal, S. (1999). Effects of the Interplay of Formal and Customary Laws on Women in Tribal Cultures. Paper Presented at The 7th Interdisciplinary Congress on Women, Women’s Worlds, No. 99.

Kazi, S. 1999. “Gender Inequalities and Development in Pakistan,” in Shahrukh Rafi Khan (ed). 50 Years of Pakistan’s Economy: Traditional Topics and Contemporary Concerns. Karachi: Oxford University Press. 376-414.

Khan, A. (2007). Women and paid work in Pakistan., Karachi: Collective for Social Science Research.

Loomba Foundation (2015). The Global Widows report. Available at http://www.theloombafoundation.org/images/The%20Global%20Widows%20Report%202015.pdf

Lopata, Z.H. (1973). Self identity in marriage and widowhood, The Sociological Quarterly, Vol. 14, No. 3 pp 290–439.

Malik, R., & Azam, F. (2018). Nuclearization of family and the status of elderly women: A case study of District Sargodha. Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan, 55(2), pp 121-130.

Muhammad, N., Jan, M. A., Shah, M., Ahmad, Z. (2009).Old Age People: A Socio-Economic View of their Problems in Peshawar City, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of life and Social Sciences. Vol. 7(2).pp.126-130.

Nnodim, A., lbert, C. & Isife, B. (2012). The effect of widowhood on the income generation and well-being of rural women in Rivers State, Nigeria. Developing Country Studies, Vol. 2, No. 11, pp 135-143.

Raju, S. S. (2011). Studies on Ageing in India: A review, Institute for Social and Economic Change. Bangalore United Nations Population Fund, New Delhi Institute of Economic Growth, Delhi.

Raju, S.S. (2002). Health Status of the Urban Elderly: A Medico-social Study, Delhi: B. R. Publishing Co.

Rehman, I & Mohyuddin, A. ( 2015). Social issues of senior citizens. The Explorer Islamabad: Journal of Social Sciences. Vol-1, No.8, pp301-306

Rehman, S. (2010). Denial of Women's Right of Inheritance: Enhancing their Vulnerability to Domestic & Societal Violence. Awaz Foundation Pakistan: Centre for Development Services. Available at http://awazcds.org.pk/Downloads/ rstudies/Inheritance%20Rights.pdf

Tarar, M. G., & Pulla, V. (2014). Patriarchy, gender violence and poverty amongst Pakistani women: A social work inquiry. International Journal of Social Work and Human Services Practice, Vol.2. No.2, pp 56-63.

United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2002). women 2000. Available at https://www.un.org/ womenwatch/daw/public/ageing-final.pdf retrieved on 12-06-2019.

United nations population fund & Help Age International ( 2012). Ageing in the Twenty-First Century: A Celebration and A Challenge available at https://www.unfpa.org/publications/ageing-twenty-first-century

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2015). The world’s women 2015, trends and statistics, Chapter 8 available at https://unstats.un.org/unsd/ gender/downloads/WorldsWomen2015_chapter8_t.pdf

World Health Organization. (2007). Women, Ageing and Health: A Framework for Action: focus on gender available at https://www.who.int/ageing/publications/ Women-ageing-health-lowres.pdf

World Health Organization. (n.d.). Gender and Ageing. Available at https://www.who.int/ageing/gender/en/ retrieved on 12-06-2019.

Downloads

Published

2021-09-07

How to Cite

Alam, H., Adnan Khan, & Tahira Jabeen. (2021). A Comparative Analysis Of Gender And Old Age Problems In Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 21(2), 37–52. Retrieved from https://socialsciencejournals.pjgs-ws.com/index.php/PJGS/article/view/557

Issue

Section

Articles