Gender Pay Gap Among Urban-Urban Migrant Workers: Pakistan's Two-Tier Urban Labor Market


  • Muhammad Umair Department of Economics, University of Karachi
  • Dr. Lubna Naz Department of Economics, University of Karachi



Urban-Urban Migration, Gender Wage Gap, Working Hours, Human Capital Investmen


Urban-urban migration has socio-economic and demographic consequences on the labor markets. It affects job mobility and gender-balance in the urban workplace. This study analyzes the gender wage gap among urban-urban migrant workers in Pakistan. The study used the most recent Labour Force Survey, a nationally representative dataset, to identify the determinants of wages for male and female migrant workers separately. The wages of urban-urban female migrants tend to be 45% lower than their male counterparts. The results indicated disparities in working hours and human capital endowment as some of the contributing factors to the increasing gender wage gap. This research calls for implementing drastic measures, i.e., gender-insensitive capacity building of urban migrant workers, workplace incentives for women, and enhancement of women leadership roles, to reduce gender inequalities in the urban labor market.





How to Cite

Umair, M., & Naz, L. . (2020). Gender Pay Gap Among Urban-Urban Migrant Workers: Pakistan’s Two-Tier Urban Labor Market. Pakistan Journal of Gender Studies, 20(2), 79–96.